KIM'S TIMELINE OF (MAINLY) AMERICAN HISTORY, Part 3: from 1941 to the present
WORLD WAR II to the present

(Click here for Part 1: 1000 to 1860)
(Click here for Part 2: 1861 to 1941)


1941.............WWII:Greece capitulates to Germany; massive Nazi attack on Russia; German Jews forced to wear
...................................identifying Star of David on clothes; Japan attacks Pearl Harbor; Germany and Italy declare war
...................................on the US; British invade Abyssinia; Lend-Lease Bill signed in US; US freezes German and Italian
...................................assets in US; Churchill and Roosevelt sign Atlantic charter; Japan invades Philippines; Hong Kong
...................................surrenders to Japan
.......................US Representative Jeannette Rankin casts sole dissenting vote in Congress against declaration of war on
...................................Japan after Pearl Harbor attack
.......................US Supreme Court rules separate RR car facilities for African Americans must be substantially equal
.......................FDR issues Executive Order 8802 prohibiting discrimination in defense industries
.......................US Savings Bonds and Stamps go on sale
.......................Donald Bailey invents portable military bridge
.......................Manhattan Project for atomic research begins
.......................Hans Haas begins underwater photography
.......................1st hotel built on the Las Vegas strip, NV
.......................Les Paul develops 1st solid-body electric guitar
.......................National Gallery of Art opens in DC
.......................Mount Rushmore completed in the Black Hills, SD,designed by Gutzon Borglum
.......................1st female comic book superhero, Wonder Woman
.......................Leonard Bacon wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................James Agee, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men; Eudora Welty, Why I Live at the P.O.; Sterling Brown, ed., The
...................................Negro Caravan


1942..............WWII: US interns more than 100,000 Japanese-Americans in concentration camps; murder of millions of
..................................Jews in Nazi gas chambers begins as Hitler institutes “"Final Solution"; sugar and gas rationing in
...................................US; fierce fighting in Pacific with Japan; Allied force land in North Africa; Bataan Death March
...................................forced evacuation of American and Philippine prisoners by Japanese forces; US wins Battle of
...................................Coral Sea and Battle of Midway; FBI captures 8 German saboteurs in FL and NY; Germans reach
...................................Stalingrad; Battle of El Alamein; French navy scuttled at Toulon; British and Indian troops advance
...................................in Burma
.......................425 Navaho soldiers trained as "code talkers" to open lines of communication among troops that could not be
...................................intercepted by Japan
.......................Manhattan Project: Enrico Fermi achieves 1st controlled nuclear chain reaction
.......................Manzanar, 1st of 10 US "relocation centers," established for internment of Japanese Americans
.......................Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded in Chicago to fight racism and discrimination through sit-ins and
...................................other nonviolent direct action
.......................1st automated computer in US
.......................Fire at Coconut Grove nightclub in Boston; 487 die
.......................Gutzon Borglum completes carvings at Mt. Rushmore
.......................US Supreme Court rules Nevada divorces valid
.......................Edward Hopper, Nighthawks
.......................Anne Frank and her family move to the "Secret Annex" where she writes her famous Diary (she is killed in
...................................1945 at Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp); published in 1947 in Amsterdam
.......................William Rose Benet wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Langston Hughes, Shakespeare in Harlem; Margaret Walker, For My People; Ellen Glasgow, In This Our Life;
...................................T.S. Eliot, Four Quartets; Isak Dineson, Winter Tales; Albert Camus, L'Etranger


1943..............WWII: Warsaw ghetto massacre; Allied “"round the clock" bombing of Germany; Roosevelt freezes wages,
...................................salaries and prices to forestall inflation; rationing of shoes, meat, cheese, fats, and canned goods
...................................in US; Germany withdraws from Caucasus; Casablanca Conference between Churchill and
...................................Roosevelt; British reach Tripoli; Hitler orders “"scorched earth" policy; German army surrenders
...................................in Tunisia; Italy declares war on Germany; Teheran Conference between Churchill, Roosevelt, and
...................................Stalin; Mussolini deposed
.......................Race riots in several cities whose labor population has been bolstered by influx of Southern African
...................................Americans
.......................Penicillin used successfully in treatment of chronic diseases
.......................Infantile paralysis epidemic kills 1,200 in US and cripples thousands
.......................US Supreme Court rules that children can be exempt from salute the flag in school if it is against their
...................................religion, victory for Jehovah's Witnesses
.......................Jefferson Memorial completed, Washington, DC, designed by John Russell Pope
.......................Pentagon completed, Arlington, VA
.......................1st feminist library in the world opens: The Florene Bayard Hines Feminist Library at the Sewell-Belmont House
.......................1st aerosol spray cans developed by US Army researchers Lyle Goodhue and William Sullivan
.......................Zoot suits and jitterbugging become popular
.......................Jacques Cousteau develops a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, or scuba gear
.......................Jackson Pollock exhibits in 1st one-man show
.......................Robert Frost, A Witness Tree (wins him his 4th Pulitzer Prize in Poetry); T.S. Eliot, Four Quartets


1944.............WWII: Gen. Douglas MacArthur begins drive through Pacific Islands; heavy air raids on London;
...................................Sebastopol liberated; US and Britain bomb Germany; Russian troops enter the Baltic states on
...................................the Eastern Front; D-Day landings in Normandy on June 6; Allies take Orvieto and Cherbourg;
...................................US troops take Saigon; Warsaw uprising; US captures Guam from Japan; Brussels liberated;
...................................Russians and Yugoslavs enter Belgrade; Red Army occupies Hungary; Battle of the Bulge;
...................................Vietnam declares independence from France
.......................G.I. Bill (The Serviceman's Readjustment Act) grants veterans loans to buy homes, start businesses or farms,
...................................or for education and vocational training. Number of degrees by colleges more than doubles by 1950;
...................................the Bill helps create the US middle class
.......................US Supreme Court rules "white primaries" excluding African Americans are unconstitutional
.......................1st eye bank in US, in NY
.......................1st successful heart operation on a newborn baby
.......................Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus fire in CT; 165 killed
.......................Woody Guthrie records "This Land Is Your Land"
.......................Edward Hopper, Morning in a City
.......................Stephen Vincent Benet wins 2nd Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Johannes Vilhelm Jensen wins Nobel in Literature
.......................Marianne Moore, Nevertheless; T.S. Eliot, Four Quartets


1945..............d. Franklin D. Roosevelt
.......................Harry S. Truman inaugurated 33rd US President
.......................WWII: Auschwitz liberated; Allies meet at Yalta; Allies bomb Dresden; Mussolini killed by Italian
...................................partisans; Hitler commits suicide; V-E Day ends war in Europe May 8; Yalta Conference;
...................................US atomic bombs dropped on Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Japan surrenders August 14;
...................................Nuremberg war crimes trials begin
.......................1st atomic bomb detonated near Alamogordo NM
.......................Black Markets for food, clothing, and cigarettes develop throughout Europe
.......................Formation of the United Nations
.......................International Monetary Fund and World Bank established
.......................US Air Force bomber crashes into the Empire State Blg., hits the 79th floor in heavy fog; 12 die
.......................1st use of pesticide DDT, used to control mosquitoes and agricultural pests; later found to cause disease
...................................in humans and species decline in birds and fish
.......................Michigan introduces fouridation in the public water supply
.......................American inventor Earl Tupper introduces Tupperware, plastic containers for storing food
.......................Arab League founded to oppose creation of a Jewish state
.......................Woman's suffrage becomes law in France
.......................Ezra Pound placed under arrest by US Army, brought to DC for trial, committed to St. Elizabeth's Hospital
.......................Karl Shapiro wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Gabriela Mistral wins Nobel in Literature
.......................Gwendolyn Brooks, A Street in Bronzeville; George Orwell, Animal Farm; Richard Wright, Black Boy


1946.............d. Gertrude Stein
.......................Peace Conference of 21 nations held in Paris; 1st session of UN General Assembly held in London
.......................Winston Churchill visits US; in a speech in Fulton MS he uses the term "iron curtain" to describe
...................................the Communist "spheres of influence," helping to usher in the Cold War
.......................John D. Rockefeller, Jr. donates $8.5 million to UN for site of permanent headquarters in NY
.......................US tests atomic bomb at Bikini Islands
.......................Labor unrest: strikes in steel, coal, railroad, shipping industries over wages and benefits
.......................US War Dept. uses ENIAC, new sophisticated calculator powered by vacuum tubes, developed by John
...................................Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania, 1st successful all-purpose computer
.......................Committee on Civil Rights formed by Pres. Truman
.......................Morgan v. VA: US Supreme Court bans segregation in interstate bus travel
.......................Women's suffrage becomes law in Italy
.......................Albania, Hungary, Transjordan, Bulgaria become independent
.......................Canonization of 1st US saint, Mother Frances Cabrini
.......................Dr. Spock publishes Baby & Child Care, instructing parents to hug their children and follow their instincts,
...................................rather than imposing set routines and rigorous discipline. Transforms child care practices
.......................DuPont chemist Roy Plunkett develops Teflon, marketed in nonstick cookware
.......................Gwendolyn Brooks wins grants from the National Institute of Arts and Letters and the Guggenheim
...................................Foundation
.......................Hermann Hesse wins Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................Elizabeth Bishop, North and South; William Carlos Williams, Paterson; Carson McCullers, A Member
...................................of the Wedding
; Robert Penn Warren, All the King's Men; John Hersey, Hiroshima; Philip
...................................Larkin, The North Ship; Ann Petry, The Street; W.C. Williams, Paterson, Book I


1947.............Marshall Plan: European recovery program
.......................Peace Treaties signed in Paris
.......................Britain grants independence to India and Pakistan; mass exodus and communal violence between two
...................................countries during Partition
.......................Over a million war veterans enroll in college under US GI Bill
.......................Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier, flying an experimental rocket-powered plane
...................................43,000 feet above CA's Mojave Desert
.......................Carbon dating developed by US chemist Willard Libby
.......................CORE stages the 1st Freedom Ride, called the "Journey of Reconciliation"
.......................Jackie Robinson is 1st African American to sign a contract with a major baseball club, the Brooklyn
...................................Dodgers
.......................1st commercial microwave ovens marketed by Raytheon
.......................Elizabeth Bishop wins Guggenheim Fellowship; G. Brooks wins 2nd fellowship
.......................Robert Lowell wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Andre Paul Guillaume Gide wins Nobel in Literature
.......................Diary of Anne Frank; Robert Lowell, Lord Weary's Castle (Pulitzer Prize in Poetry); Wallace Stevens,
...................................Transport to Summer


1948..............Pres. Truman calls for an end to “"Jim Crow," with anti-lynching laws, federal commission on civil rights
.......................Truman issues Executive Order 9981, mandating equal treatment for minorities in the armed forces
.......................The US Supreme Court rules that covenants prohibiting the sale of real estate to African Americans or
...................................members of other racial groups is legally unenforceable
.......................House Un-American Activities Committee alleges communist spy rings
.......................Selective Service Act passed; provides continued military draft
.......................First African American clerk appointed to U.S. Supreme Court: William T. Coleman, Jr. serves under
...................................Justice Felix Frankfurter through 1949
.......................Mohandas K. Gandhi assassinated
.......................Formation of Israel, the 1st Jewish state in the Holy Land since Roman times. The Arab League responds
...................................with immediate attacks (from Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria) in a war that lasts through
...................................1949
.......................Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-tung establishes the Chinese People's Republic
.......................Communists seize power in Czechoslovakia
.......................Dead Sea Scrolls discovered by 3 Bedouin shepherds near Wadi Qumran, the oldest extant Biblical texts
.......................Formation of the UN World Health Organization to monitor epidemiological and statistical information
...................................from over 150 countries
.......................Electric appliances become widespread in American homes; paper back books popularized
.......................1st televised presidential campaign ads
.......................Edwin Land markets 1st Polaroid camera, with one-step developing and printing process
.......................Kinsey report on male sexuality published; reveals that the vast majority of American men had sex before
............................marriage, half had sex with someone other than their wife during marriage, 92%A masturbated,
............................59% had performed oral sex; 69% had hired a prostitute, and 37% had homosexual sex
.......................Long-playing record invented by Peter Goldmark, plays for 45 minutes
.......................Andrew Wyeth, Christina's World
.......................T.S. Eliot wins Nobel Prize in Literature; W.H. Auden wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Theodore Roethke, The Lost Son and Other Poems; Dorothy West, The Living is Easy; Alan Paton, Cry,
...................................The Beloved Country
; Norman Mailer, The Naked and the Dead; Alfred Kinsey, Sexual Behavior
...................................of the Human Male
; Ezra Pound, Pisan Cantos


1949.............Formation of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
.......................NAACP initiates a series of school desegregation cases in DE, KS, SC, VA, and DC (through 1951)
.......................Apartheid established in South Africa
.......................USSR tests an atomic bomb
.......................Formation of Chinese Communist People's Republic by Mao Zedong
.......................1st photocopiers developed by American inventor Chester Carlson
.......................1st Emmy Awards for television
.......................1st atomic clock
.......................1st 45-r.p.m. vinyl record "singles" made
......................Walter Gropius and the Architects' Collaborative construct the Bauhaus-influenced Harvard Graduate Center;
...................................Philip Johnson, Glass House, New Canaan, CT
.......................Peter Viereck wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Pound awarded Bollingen Prize while incarcerated at St. Elizabeth's
...................................Hospital, creating great controversy; WIlliam Faulkner awarded Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................Gwendolyn Brooks, Annie Allen; George Orwell, 1984; Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman; Langston Hughes
...................................and Arna Bontemps, eds., The Poetry of the Negro 1746-1949; Langston Hughes, One Way Ticket; Ezra
...................................Pound, Pisan Cantos


1950.............d. Edna St .Vincent Millay
.......................Korean War begins when North Korean troops invade South Korea
.......................McCarthy Trials against alleged Communists and Communist sympathizers
.......................McCarran Act passes Congress over presidential veto; calls for severe restrictions against Communists;
...................................registration of all Communist organizations and individuals; forbids entry to US to aliens who
...................................have belonged to totalitarian organizations
.......................Truman instructs US Atomic Energy Commission to develop hydrogen bomb
.......................US occupation of Korea (through 1953)
.......................McLauren v. OK Bd. of Regents: US Supreme Court requires U of OK end the practice of providing separate
...................................facilities for African American students on campus
.......................Henderson v. US: US Supreme Court rules if separate but equal facilities on interstate transportation do not
...................................exist, African Americans can not be kept from using the same facilities as whites
.......................Sweatt v. Painer: U of TX Law School required to integrate on the grounds that the state had failed to provide
...................................separate facilties that were equal
.......................Althea Gibson becomes 1st African American to compete in the US tennis championships
.......................Antihistamines become popular remedy for colds and allergies
.......................UN Building completed in NY
.......................Sylvia Plath enters Smith College on full scholarship
.......................Ralphe Bunche is 1st African American to win Nobel Peace Prize
.......................1st human kidney transplant performed, by Dr. R.H. Lawler
.......................1st telephone answering machine developed in Japan
.......................1st ballpoint pens
.......................Philip Johnson, The Glass House, New Canaan, CT
.......................Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm: No 30
.......................Gwendolyn Brooks is 1st African American to win the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Earl Russell wins Nobel in Literature
.......................Langston Hughes, Simple Speaks His Mind


1951.............22nd Amendment to the Constitution limits Presidency to 2 terms
.......................US tests atomic bombs in NV
.......................Korean War: attempts to negotiate armistice fail; UN forces capture Heartbreak Ridge
.......................Ralphe Bunche appointed undersecretary to the UN
.......................Julius and Ethel Rosenberg found guilty of wartime espionage; get death penalty
.......................Mattachine Society founded, 1st gay group in US, dedicated to "the protection and improvement
...........................of Society's Androgynous Minority"
.......................1st transcontinental TV broadcast; color TV introduced
.......................Leo Fender's Telecaster becomes 1st solid-body electric guitar to go into commercial production
.......................1st disposable diapers developed by NYC homemaker Mary Donovan
.......................Mies Van der Rohe, Farnsworth House, Plano, IL
.......................Carl Sandburg wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry, Par Fabian Lagerkvist wins Nobel in Literature
.......................Marianne Moore, Collected Poems; Adrienne Rich, A Change of World (wins Yale Younger Poets
...................................Award); Langston Hughes, Montage of a Dream Deferred; Robert Frost, Complete Poems;
...................................Carl Sandburg, Complete Poems; J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye


1952.............Korean War: US bombs hydroelectric plants in North Korea; UN General Assembly adopts plan for
...................................Korean armistice; China rejects plan
.......................The White House renovation is completed after a literal gutting and rebuilding
.......................1st H-bomb exploded at Aniwetok Atoll Nov. 6
.......................Tuskegee Report published; reports that no lynchings of African Americans were reported in the US for
...................................the first time in 71 years
.......................King George VI of England dies; succeeded by daughter Queen Elizabeth II
.......................Britain conducts atomic tests in western Australia
......................Jonas Salk develops polio vaccine, starts 1st modern mass inoculation campaign
.......................Contraceptive pill introduced
.......................1st mechanical heart implanted in a human, at Pennsylvania Hospital
.......................Buckminster Fuller develops geodesic dome
.......................American Christine Jorgenson is 1st widely publicized transsexual
.......................1st video recorder, developed by John Mullin and Wayne Johnson
.......................Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Lever House, NYC, masterpiece of the International Style
.......................Willem De Kooning, Woman I; Helen Frankenthaler, Mountains and Sea
.......................Marianne Moore wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Francois Mauriac wins Nobel in Literature
.......................Marianne Moore, Collected Poems; Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man; Dylan Thomas, Collected Poems; Langston
...................................Hughes, Laughing to Keep from Crying; Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea


1953..............Dwight D. Eisenhower inaugurated 34th US President; 1st televised inauguration
.......................Korean armistice signed, ends hostilities, but no peace treaty is ever signed, so technically the war continues.
...................................At least three million people die in the Korean War, including 58,220 Americans
.......................US Congress creates new cabinet post: Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
.......................Dr. Jonas Salk develops polio vaccine
.......................James Watson and Frances Crick describe structure of DNA as a double helix
.......................Gertrude Elion and George Hitchings of Glaxo-Wellcome invent chemotherapy and successfully treat acute
...................................leukemia by creating drugs that interfere with the way cancer cells metabolize nucleic acids
.......................The Rosenbergs, sentenced as atomic spied in 1951, are executed at Sing Sing Prison, NY
.......................Saran Wrap marketed to home cooks by Dow Chemical, developed by Ralph Wiley
.......................Kinsey Report of female sexuality published; reveals 62% of American women masturbate, half had pre-marital
............................sex, and 13% had lesbian sex
.......................1st wide-circulation, national gay periodical, One Magazine: The Homosexual Viewpoint, published by the
............................Mattachine Society
.......................Edmund Hilary of New Zealand and Tensing Norgay of Nepal become 1st to scale Mt. Everest
.......................US Supreme Court bans segregation in Washington DC restaurants in District of Columbia v. John R. Thompson
.....................................Co., Inc., a suit instigated by Mary Church Terrell
.......................Sir Winston Churchill wins Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................Gwendolyn Brooks, Maud Martha (novel); Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea (awarded
...................................Pulitzer Prize); Archibald MacLeish, Collected Poems (wins his 2nd Pulitzer Prize in Poetry); Langston
...................................Hughes, Simple Takes a Wife; James Baldwin, Go Tell It On the Mountain; Simone deBeauvoir, The
...................................Second Sex


1954..............US Supreme Court rules segregated schools unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education
.......................Washington DC becomes 1st major city to integrate its public schools
.......................Height of “"McCarthyism" trials; televised hearing seeks to prove Communist infiltration in US Army;
...................................Senate issues formal censure and condemnation of Sen. Joseph McCarthy
.......................Iwo Jima Memorial constructed in Arlington, VA. designed by Felix deWeldon, based on a photograph
...................................by Joseph Rosenthal; only major Ameircan monument inspired by a photo, honors US Marine Corps
.......................US tests H-bomb at Marshall Islands
.......................1st atomic submarine, the Nautilus, launched at Groton, CT
.......................Jonas Salk begins inoculations of Pittsburgh school children with new antipolio serum
.......................1st White Citizens Council meeting held in MS
.......................Ellis Island closed for good.  After inspection of immigrants moved to American consulates abroad in 1925,
...................................the island was used primarily as a prison, especially during the two World Wars.  The government
...................................considers selling the island as surplus property, even going so far as taking bids.
.......................1st mass produced transistor radios
.......................1st remote controls for television, developed by inventor Robert Adler for Zenith
.......................1st modern stop signs; the red sign in an octa
gon shape becomes the standard throughout the US
.......................1st TV Dinners marketed by Swanson Co.; they consist of turkey with dressing, peas, and mashed potatoes
.......................German company Muller Martini creates 1st automatic saddle-staple machine; becomes the standard for
...................................magazines and other publications around the world
.......................1st Newport Jazz Festival held
.......................Elvis Presley cuts his 1st commercial sessions for Sun Records
.......................Rev. Sun Myung Moon founds a new faith to establish a kingdom of heaven on earth ("Moonies")
.......................Ernest Hemingway awarded Nobel Prize for Literature, Wallace Stevens awarded Pulitzer Prize
.......................Theodore Roethke, The Waking (wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry); William Golding, Lord of the Flies;
...................................J.R.R. Tolkien, Lord of the Rings; Wallace Stevens, Collected Poems


1955..............Interstate Commerce Commission bans segregation in interstate travel
.......................Emmet Till lynched at age 14 for allegedly whistling at a white woman in Money, MS
.......................US Supreme Court orders public school integration "with all deliberate speed"
.......................Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a public bus in Montgomery, AL, triggering a
...................................382-day bus boycott by African American citizens
.......................Pres. Eisenhower suffers heart attack
.......................Warsaw Pact unites Soviet Union and 7 Eastern bloc nations
.......................USSR tests one megaton hydrogen bomb
.......................Atomically generated power 1st used in US in Schenectady NY
.......................1st nuclear submarine launched, the Nautilus, at Groton Naval Base, CT
.......................1st permanent base built on Antarctica, the Australian-run Mawson Station
.......................1st direct air route developed by US Navy from New Zealand to Antarctica; flights take 10 hours
.......................AFL and CIO merge, 2 largest labor unions in the US
.......................Disneyland amusement park constructed at Anaheim, CA; Mickey Mouse Club premiers on TV
.......................1st lesbian organization, the Daughters of Bilitis
.......................Marian Anderson debuts at the Metropolitan Opera House
....................... Jasper Johns, Target with Four Faces
.......................Wallace Stevens wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Halidor Kiljan Laxness wins Nobel in Literature
.......................Adrienne Rich, The Diamond Cutters; Marianne Moore, Predilections (essays and reviews); Elizabeth
...................................Bishop, Poems: North and South - A Cold Spring; Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man is Hard
...................................to Find
; Philip Larkin, The Less Deceived; Langston Hughes with photographer Roy De Carava,
...................................Sweet Flypaper of Life
; James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son


1956.............Southern members of Congress pledge their opposition to school desegregation, issuing a "Southern
...................................Manifesto"
....................... Autherine Lucy 1st African American to attend Univ. of AL
.......................AL outlaws the NAACP
.......................Tallahassee Bus Boycott begins (through 1958)
.......................Martin Luther King, Jr.'s home is bombed in reaction to his role in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott
.......................Rise of the suburbs in the US
.......................Soviets crush worker uprising in Poland and quash uprising in Hungary
.......................Sudan gains independence from the UK and Egypt
.......................Elvis Presley appears on the Ed Sullivan Show on TV
.......................Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Ranier of Monaco
.......................American Cemetery in Normandy, France dedicated, overlooked Omaha Beach where D-Day invasions
...................................took place in WWII
.......................Shipping container invented by Malcolm McLean, a truck driver from North Carolina; this will eventually
...................................transform cargo shipping and consumption patterns world-wide
.......................Elizabeth Bishop awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Juan Ramon Jimenez wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Sylvia Plath marries Ted Hughes
.......................Allen Ginsberg, Howl; John Berryman, Homage to Mistress Bradstreet; Langston Hughes, I Wonder As I
...................................Wander


1957.............Troops sent to Little Rock, AR to assure compliance in school desegregation and forestall violence after 9
....................................African-American students are enrolled at Central HS
.......................Southern Christian Leadership Conference founded to fight for civil rights
.......................US Justice Dept. establishes a US Commission on Civil Rights
.......................Southern Christian Leadership Conference founded to fight for Civil Rights
.......................Tidal wave following Hurricane Audrey leaves 530 dead in TX
.......................Atomic missiles installed near major US cities by Army Air Defense Command
.......................Eisenhower Doctrine formulated to protect Middle East from Communist aggression
.......................Countries of western Europe form European Common Market
.......................Ghana gains independence from the UK
.......................USSR launches 1st man-made satellite into orbit around earth, Sputnik
.......................International Geophysical Year (through 1959): 12 nations set up 56 scientific stations on Antarctica, and
...................................make scientific advances in the study of auroras, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, glaciology, gravity,
...................................ionospheric physics, meteorology, oceanography, seismology, biology, and medicine
.......................Scientists confirm connection between cigarette smoking and cancer
.......................Bubblewrap invented by American engineers Al Fielding and Marc Chavannes
.......................1st AA-size alkaline batteries produced, used to power radios
.......................Beginning of Beat poetry
.......................Lawrence Ferlinghetti is arrested on obscenity charges after a second printing of Allen Ginsberg's Howl is
...................................seized by US Customs. Eventually Ferlinghetti will be cleared of all charges after a court rules that the
...................................book has "redeeming social value"
.......................Richard Wilbur wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Albert Camus wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Elizabeth Bishop, The Diary of Helena Morely (trans.); Jack Kerouac, On the Road; William Burroughs,
...................................Naked Lunch
; Langston Hughes, Simple Stakes a Claim; Richard Wilbur, Things of This World
...................................(winner of Pulitzer Prize in Poetry); Dr. Seuss, The Cat in the Hat


1958.............1st US satellite in orbit, Explorer I
.......................NASA established to explore space; forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency
.......................Desegregation of schools attempted in South; Gov. Orval Faubus of AR defies Supreme Court by closing
...................................schools in Little Rock and reopening them as private segregated schools
.......................Cooper v. Aaron: US Supreme Court rules potential for mob violence does not justify a school's refusal to
...................................desegregate
.......................Fidel Castro begins “total war” against the Batista government in Cuba
.......................US nuclear sub Nautilus passes under North Pole icecap
.......................12 men led by Vivian Fuchs make 1st overland crossing of Antarctica on Sno-cats
.......................Tallest wave ever recorded: 100 feet high, created by an earthquake followed by a landslide in Alaska
.......................1st stereophonic recordings
.......................1st Hula Hoops and Frisbees marketed by Wham-o Toys
.......................1st skateboards, created by Bill and Mark Richards of CA
.......................Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum opens in NY; Mies Van der Rohe, Seagram Building, NYC
.......................Fire at Museum of Modern Art in NY causes $320,000 damage
.......................Morris Louis, Tet
.......................Ezra Pound released from St. Elizabeth's Hospital in DC after 12 years; returns to Italy
.......................Robert Penn Warren wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Boris Pasternak wins Nobel for Literature
.......................Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun; Archibald MacLeish, J.B.; Lawrence Ferlinghetti, A Coney Island
...................................of the Mind
; Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart; Robert Penn Warren, Promises (wins Pulitzer Prize
...................................in Poetry); Langston Hughes, The Langston Hughes Reader; Truman Capote, Breakfast at Tiffany's


1959.............AK admitted as 49th state
.......................HI admitted as 50th state
.......................Prince Edward County, VA closes down public schools for 5 years in massive resistance to forced
...................................school desegregation
.......................Castro becomes Premier of Cuba
.......................The St. Lawrence Seaway completed, linking the Great Lakes to the Atlantic
.......................International agreement by 12 nations preserves the Antarctic continent for scientific research
.......................1st Int'l Congress of Oceanography in NY
.......................Antarctic Treaty signed into law by 12 nations
.......................1st photographs of the far or dark side of the moon
.......................1st halogen light bulbs, developed by engineers at General Electric
.......................1st Newport Folk Festival
.......................1st Grammy Awards for music
.......................Berry Gordy, Jr. establishes Motown Records

.......................Barbie Dolls 1st developed by Ruth Handler for Mattel Toys
.......................1st skateboards marketed
.......................Guggenheim Museum opens in NYC; architect Frank Lloyd Wright
.......................US Postmaster General bans Lady Chatterley's Lover by D.H. Lawrence on grounds of obscenity (ruling
...................................reversed in 1960)
.......................Beginnings of Confessional poetry
.......................Stanley Kunitz wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Salvatore Quasimodo wins Nobel for Literature
.......................Robert Lowell, Life Studies; W.D. Snodgrass, Heart's Needle; Stanley Kunitz, Selected Poems (wins Pulitzer
...................................Prize in Poetry); Langston Hughes, Selected Poems; Lorraine Hansbury, A Raisin in the Sun; Gunther
...................................Grass, Tin Drum


1960.............Lunch counter sit-ins to protest segregation begin with 4 African American college students at a Woolworth's
....................................in Greensboro NC and spread rapidly throughout the South
.......................Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founded by Ella Baker to fight for civil rights
.......................Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. meets with Pres. John F. Kennedy
.......................1st televised debate among US Presidential candidates: Kennedy vs. Nixon
.......................Theodore Roosevelt Memorial constructed in DC
.......................12 new independent African states formed from former European colonies: Zaire, Somalia, Dahomey, Upper Volta,
...................................Ivory Coast, Chad, Congo, Brazzaville, Gabon, Senegal, Mali, and Nigeria
.......................W.D. Snodgrass wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Saint-John Perse wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters; Sylvia Plath, The Colossus; Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird; Waring
...................................Cuney, Puzzles


1961..............John F. Kennedy inaugurated 35th US President; youngest person elected Pres. and youngest to die in office
.......................Bay of Pigs invasion fails to overthrow Castro regime in Cuba; exiled rebels were trained and supplied by US
.......................Freedom Riders attacked by mobs in tests of integration on interstate buses throughout the South
.......................Federal Court orders U of GA to admit 2 African American students, Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes; a
...................................riot follows
.......................Civil Rights organizations meet with Attorney General Robert Kennedy to discuss voting rights
.......................Interstate Commerce Commission declares segregation in interstate bus terminals illegal
.......................FDA approves sales of oral contraceptives in US
.......................23rd Amendment to Constitution ratified, giving DC residents right to vote in presidential elections
.......................USSR puts 1st man in space, Yuri Gagarin
.......................Formation of the Peace Corps
.......................Berlin Wall constructed to halt exodus from East Germany to the west
.......................UN General Assembly condemns apartheid
.......................Anthropologist Louis Leakey uncovers oldest humanoid bones in Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika
...................................Gov. Barnett guilty of civil contempt; US marshals and 3,000 soldiers suppress riots when
...................................Meredith arrives on campus to begin classes
.......................Supreme Court bans prayer in schools
.......................Thalidomide use by pregnant women causes birth defects
.......................Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, 1st widely-read eco-book
.......................Soft contact lenses created by chemist Otto Wichterle
.......................The Beatles release 1st album, self-produced
.......................Pop art launched in NY
.......................Eero Saarinen, TWA Terminal, NYC
.......................The Washington Redskins become the last NFL team to integrate, under threat from the federal government
.......................John Steinbeck awarded Nobel Prize for Literature; Langston Hughes inducted into the National Institute of
...................................Arts and Letters; Phillis McGinley wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Ivo Andric wins Nobel Prize for
.................................  Literature
.......................Katherine Anne Porter, Ship of Fools, James Baldwin, Another Country; Anthony Burgess, A Clockwork
...................................Orange
; Ken Kesey, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest; Joseph Heller, Catch-22; Leroi Jones, Preface
...................................to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note
; James Baldwin, Nobody Knows My Name


1962..............Cuban Missile Crisis averted when USSR withdraws missiles
....................... Pope John XXIII opens 2nd Vatican Council
.......................In Engel v. Vitale, US Supreme Court rules that public schools cannot instutute a daily prayer even if it is
...................................voluntary and nondenominational
.......................John Glenn orbits the earth in a spacecraft
.......................US Supreme Court rules that the University of Mississippi must admit James Meredith, an African American
...................................student; his enrollment leads to the most violent campus riot of the decade; US soldiers brought to
...................................campus; US Marshalls escort Meredith to classes
.......................JFK federalizes the MS National Guard and later deploys the Army to U of MS
.......................JFK issues executive order barring discrimination in federally-financed housing
.......................Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uganda achieve independence from the UK
.......................London Sunday Times publishes 1st color supplement
......................Telstar Communications Satellite launched into space; 1st relay of trans-Atlantic television signals; start of
...................................global communications
.......................Pearl Harbor Memorial dedicated in Hawaii
.......................The rock band The Rolling Stones formed
.......................Andy Warhol, 100 Cans
.......................Boston courts ban the US publication of Naked Lunch by William S. Burroughs on charges of obscenity
.......................Alan Dugan wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; John Steinbeck wins Nobel Prize in Literature

.......................Robert Frost, In the Clearing;W.C. Williams, Pictures from Brueghel; James Baldwin, Another Country;
...................................Rachel Carson, Silent Spring


1963..............d. Sylvia Plath
.......................Pres. Kennedy assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
.......................Oswald shot by Jack Ruby
.......................Lyndon B. Johnson inaugurated 36th US President
.......................Civil Rights demonstrations in Birmingham; arrest of Martin Luther King, Jr.; 200,000 Freedom
...................................Marchers demonstrate in Washington DC; Police use dogs and water cannons on marchers, many of them
...................................children, in AL; forced .integration of schools in the South; 4 girls killed in the bombing of the 16th Street
...................................Baptist Church in Birmingham
.......................Martin Luther King, Jr. publishes "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
.......................March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom attracts 250,000 to rally on the National Mall; culminates with speeches
...................................at the Lincoln Memorial, including Martin Luther King, Jr.'s  "I Have a Dream" speech on the steps of the Lincoln
...................................Memorial
.......................Medgar Evers, Field Sec'y for the NAACP, murdered in MS
.......................US and USSR establish "hot line" phone from White House to Kremlin
.......................US raises postage for 1st class letters to 5 cents; 1st use of zip codes
.......................Elizabeth Seaton, 1st American-born Catholic to be beatified
.......................Archeologists find Viking ruins in Newfoundland
.......................USSR puts 1st woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova
.......................Kenya achieves independence from the UK
.......................Smiley face symbol developed by Harvey Ball, a graphic artist from MA
.......................Guggenheim Museum exhibits Pop Art
.......................William Carlos Williams wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Giorgos Seferis wins Nobel for Literature
.......................Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar; Mary McCarthy, The Group; Gwendolyn Brooks; Selected Poems; Adrienne
...................................Rich, Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law: WC Williams, Pictures from Brueghel (wins Pulitzer
...................................Prize for Poetry); Langston Hughes, Something in Common and Other Stories; Langston Hughes, ed.,
...................................Poems from Black Africa, Ethiopia, and Other Countries; Leroi Jones, Blues People


1964.............24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax
.......................Warren Commission finds that Oswald acted alone in assassination of Pres. Kennedy
.......................US destroyer allegedly attacked off North Vietnam; US air attack as reprisal
.......................Race riots in Harlem and numerous other US cities
.......................Malcolm X splits from the Black Nationalist Muslim movement; makes hajj to Mecca; founds Organization
...................................for Afro-American Unity
.......................Civil Rights Act outlaws job discrimination on the basis of race or gender; prohibits racial discrimination
...................................in places of public accommodation, publicly owned facilities, union membership, and federally
...................................funded programs
.......................3 civil rights workers in MS murdered: James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner
......................Griffin et al. v. County School Bd. of Prince Edward County: US Supreme Court rules that a school board
...................................may not close a school to circumvent a desegregation order
.......................Margaret Chase Smith, 1st woman nominated for US President in a major party convention
.......................NASA tests 1st successful electric rocket engine
.......................Earthquake in AK kills 114
.......................Verazzano-Narrow Bridge opens in NY; world's longest suspension bridge
.......................The Vatican abolishes Latin as the official language of Roman Catholic clergy, disassociates Jews from
...................................guilt in crucifixion of Jesus, extends friendship to other major religions, and criticizes anti-Semitism
.......................China tests its 1st atomic bomb
.......................German Geraldine Mock is 1st woman to complete solo round-the-world flight
.......................South Africa barred from Tokyo Olympics due to their apartheid policy
.......................Malawi and Zambia achieve independence from UK
.......................Martin Luther King, Jr. awarded Nobel Peace Prize
.......................Surgeon General Luther Terry links tobacco to cancer, heart disease and other ailments for 1st time
.......................Capital Beltway completed: ring road around DC
.......................World's Fair in NYC held in conjunction with the city's 300th anniversary of English forces gaining
...................................control of New Amsterdam in 1664
.......................Popular dances include the Watusi, Frug, Monkey, and Funky Chicken: discotheques and go-go girls
.......................Cassius Clay (Mohammad Ali) wins world heavyweight boxing championship
.......................Sidney Poitier becomes 1st African American to win the Oscar for Best Actor, for movie “"Lilies of the
...................................Field"
.......................The Beatles initiate the "British Invasion" by musical groups
.......................Andy Warhol, Marilyn
.......................Louis Simpson wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Jean-Paul Sarte wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Denise Levertov, O Taste and See; Ernest Hemingway, A Moveable Feast; Frank O'Hara, Lunch Poems;
...................................
Langston Hughes, ed., New Negro Poets: U.S.A.


1965.............Lyndon Baines Johnson inaugurated 36th US Pres.
.......................Vietnam War: 1st US Marines arrive in Vietnam; American planes drop 1,000 tons of napalm on a Viet Cong
...................................stronghold in South Vietnam near the Cambodian border; the bombing represents a sharp increase
...................................in American military involvement
...................... Malcolm X assassinated in NY
.......................Martin Luther King, Jr. leads voting rights march from Selma to Montgomery AL on "Bloody Sunday,"
...................................marchers met by police outside Montgomery with tear gas, clubs, and dogs: Unitarian Minister
...................................James Reeb dies of wounds sustained in a brutal attack outside Selma; Viola Liuzza murdered
...................................by the KKK as she drove marchers back from Montgomery to Selma
.......................Severe race riots in LA leave 35 dead; white rioting in Cleveland against integration
.......................Voting Rights Act passed; prohibits use of poll taxes, literacy tests, or other impediments which deny
...................................minorities the right to vote
.......................Creation of the Dept. of Housing and Urban Development
.......................Equal Employment Opportunity Commission established
.......................US Supreme Court bars curbs on birth control
.......................Relay switch in Ontario malfunctions; blackout of entire NE US and parts of Canada affects 30 million
.......................1st African American ambassador, Patricia Harris posted to Luxembourg
.......................Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei A. Leonov becomes 1st man to float outside a spacecraft
.......................The Global Positioning System developed by the US Navy for use on nuclear submarines
.......................1st experimental computer link spans the nation between MIT in Cambridge, MA and System Development
...................................Corp. in Santa Monica, CA
.......................Ellis Island transferred from federal control to the US Park Service, part of the Statue of Liberty National
...................................Monument
.......................1st pull-tab aluminum cans developed by Erma Fraze
.......................Windsurfing developed by Americans Jim Drake and Hoyle Schweitzer
.......................Hare Krishna faith founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta
.......................Moog synthesizer invented by Robert Moog
.......................Black Arts Movement formed in Harlem
.......................John Berryman wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov wins Nobel Prize for
.................................  Literature
.......................Elizabeth Bishop, Questions of Travel; May Sarton, Mrs. Stevens Hears the Mermaids Singing; Sylvia Plath,
...................................Ariel
; Robert Lowell, For the Union Dead; John Berryman, 77 Dream Songs; James Dickey,
...................................
Buckdancer's Choice
; Langston Hughes, Simple's Uncle Sam; Malcolm X and Alex Haley, The
...................................Autobiography of Malcolm X


1966..............Vietnam War: Christmas truce observed
.......................Neil Armstrong becomes 1st man to walk on the moon
.......................Kennedy Memorial Grave constructed at Arlington National Cemetery
.......................LBJ signs bill to construct Coulee Dam, world's largest power plant
.......................Black Panthers founded to fight racism in northern cities, defend African Americans against racist
...................................police officers, and provide social services for inner-city African American communities
.......................National Organization for Women founded
.......................James Meredith shot and wounded soon after beginning his "March Against Fear" from Memphis, TN
...................................to Jackson, MS
.......................Mass shooting at University of Texas at Austin: student and former Marine sniper Charles Whitman shoots
...................................from the campus clock tower, kills 16 and wounds 31
.......................Roman Catholic bishops in US rule against abstaining from meat on Fridays except during Lent
.......................Metropolitan Opera House in Lincoln Center, NY, opens
.......................Uniform Time Act of 1966 recommends use of Daylight Savings Time throughout the US. Only
...................................Arizona, Hawaii, and parts of Indiana, Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and American Samoa
...................................decline to participate in the system
......................World Heavyweight Champion Muhammad Ali refuses to be drafted into the US Army
.......................Floods in N. Italy ruin thousands of art treasures in Venice and Florence
.......................Landslide in the mining village of Aberfan, Wales, kills 116 children and 28 adults
.......................Miniskirts come into fashion
.......................Color TV becomes popular
.......................Cigarettes required to have labels warning of health risks
.......................Black Sparrow Press founded by John Martin in Santa Rosa, CA
.......................Richard Eberhart wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Shmeul Yosef Agnon and Nelly Sachs share the Nobel Prize for
.................................Literature
.......................Anne Sexton, Live or Die (winner of Pulitzer Prize); Truman Capote, In Cold Blood; Flannery O'Connor,
...................................
Everything That Rises Must Converge


1967.............d. Langston Hughes
...................... 50,000 protest Vietnam War at Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC;ML King leads anti-war march in NY
.......................Race riots in Cleveland, Newark, Chicago, and Detroit
.......................Stokely Carmichael calls for an armed Black revolution in US
.......................Gov. John Arthur of CO signs 1st US law legalizing abortion
.......................US Supreme Court rules states cannot ban interracial marriages in Loving v. Virginia
.......................Thurgood Marshall becomes 1st African American Supreme Court justice
.......................25th Amendment: Pres. can appoint a VP if that position is vacated; VP can be appointed acting Pres. if Pres.
...................................is unable to fulfill duties
.......................US bombs Hanoi
.......................Six Day War between Israel and Arab nations
.......................The People's Republic of China explodes its 1st hydrogen bomb
.......................US space ship Apollo I burns on launch pad during testing, killing 3
.......................Muhammad Ali stripped of his boxing title for refusing to fight in Vietnam
.......................American Nazi Party leader G.L. Rockwell shot to death in Arlington, VA
.......................1st heart transplant, by South African doctor Christiaan Barnard
.......................1st portable electronic calculators marketed by Texas Instruments
.......................10,000 hippies rally at NY “"Be-in"”
.......................Underground radio debuts on KMPX-FM in San Francisco; 1st hippie radio station is soon imitated
...................................across the US, defining American counter-cultural rebellion
.......................Twiggy, British fashion model, becomes famous
.......................Theodore Roosevelt Memorial opens in Washington, DC
.......................Anne Sexton wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Miguel Angel Asturias wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Marianne Moore, Complete Poems; Adrienne Rich, Selected Poems; Langston Hughes, The Panther and
...................................the Lash
; William Styron, The Confessions of Nat Turner; Gabriel Garcia Marquez, One Hundred
...................................Years of Solitude
; Chaim Potok, The Chosen; Robert Bly, The Light Around the Body


1968.............Assasination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis; Scotland Yard arrests James Earl Ray in London; he is
...................................extradicted to US to stand trial
.......................Assassination of Robert Kennedy in Los Angeles immediately after winning CA Democratic primary; Sirhan
...................................Sirhan of Jordan later arrested and convicted
.......................Vietnam War: Tet Offensive; 1st US troops withdraws from Vietnam; Mylai Massacre
.......................Massive college anti-war protests
.......................Richard Milhous Nixon inaugurated 37th US President; to become 1st Pres. to resign from office
.......................1st US astronauts land on moon: Neil Armstrong and Edwin “"Buzz" Aldrin
.......................1st communication satellite launched, Intelsat 3A
.......................Shirley Chisholm becomes 1st African American woman elected to US House of Representatives
.......................Democratic Convention in Chicago marked by riots and police brutality
.......................New York Radical Women protest at the Miss America Pageant in Atlantic City, with a Freedom Trash Can
...................................where women were invited to throw out high heels, Playboy magazines, and to burn their bras; they also
...................................crowned a live sheep queen and unfurled a "Women's Liberation" banner inside the theater
......................Founding of the American Indian Movement (AIM) to fight for civil and land rights for indigenous people in the US
.......................Charles Manson indicted for murder of 5
.......................US Supreme Court orders desegregation at once, overturning earlier ruling for desegregation “"with all
...................................deliberate speed"
.......................Memorial Day declared a national annual holiday on the last Monday of May
.......................Russia and Warsaw Pact nations invade Czechoslovakia
.......................Woodstock Music Festival draws audience of 300,000
.......................Harvard University opens program in Black Studies
.......................1st live color TV pictures of earth from space, sent from Apollo 10
.......................1st automated teller machines (ATMs), inventeds by Don Wetzel, and American businessman
.......................Canada legalizes abortion and homosexuality in omnibus criminal code bill
.......................Violent fighting in Northern Ireland between Protestants and Roman Catholics
......................."Sesame Street" begins broadcasting educational TV for pre-school children
.......................Anthony Hecht wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Yasunari Kawabata wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five; Ursula LeGuin, The Left Hand of Darkness; John Berryman, The
...................................Dream Songs


1969..............1st US troops withdrawn from Vietnam (75,000 withdrawn by end of year)
........................Lt. William L. Calley Jr. stands trial for murder in the My Lai Massacre in Vietnam (convicted 1971)
.......................Apollo 11 lands on the moon; Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the surface while a third astronaut,
...................................Michael Collins, remains in orbit
.......................Alexander v. Holms Cty. Bd. of Ed.: US Supreme Court rules that school districts must end segregation
...................................at once and must operate only unitary school systems
.......................Woodstock Festival near Bethel, NY attracts an audience of approx. 400,000 over 3 days; performances
...................................by Joan Baez, Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, others
........................Stonewall Riots in NYC mark the beginning of the Gay Liberation Movement
........................Vietnam War Moratorium Rally attracts over 500,000 protesters on the National Mall in Washington, DC,
...................................one of the largesst demonstrations in US history
........................Trouser outfits become acceptable everyday wear for women
........................Sen. Edward Kennedy plunges his car into a pond at Chappaquiddick Island, MA, killing his passenger,
...................................Mary Jo Kopechne
.......................1st major oil spill in US history covers a 200-mile stretch of CA coastline; beginning of widespread
...................................environmental movement
.......................Hurricane Camille devastates the Gulf Coast, the strongest recorded hurricane to strike the continental
...................................US, with 190 mile per hour winds
.......................1st Automatic Teller Machines introduced, for 24 hour banking, at Chemical Bank in New York
.......................The Pentagon develops the "Arpanet," precurser to the internet
.......................Golda Meir of Israel, world's 1st female prime minister
.......................Small Press Distribution founded in Berkeley, CA, the only wholesaler in the US dedicated exclusively to
...................................independently-published literature
.......................George Oppen wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Samuel Beckett wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Philip Roth, Portnoy's Complaint; Mario Puzo, The Godfather


1970.............d. Louise Bogan
.......................Congressional Black Caucus created; originally called the Democratic Select Committee
.......................US Census reveals that 53% of African Americans live in the South, the result of a massive
...................................migration north from 1910 to this time; approximately 7 million African Americans have
...................................left Southern states
.......................Vietnam War: combat troops sent into Cambodia
.......................Killing of 4 students by National Guard at Kent State University in OH in student protests against
...................................Vietnam War
.......................448 US universities are closed or go on strike
.......................1st complete synthesis of a gene by scientists at Univ. of WI
.......................Nixon lowers voting age from 21 to 18
.......................48,000 acres in NM returned to Taos Indians
.......................1st automobiles designed to run on unleaded fuel
.......................1st celebration of Earth Day; 20 million Americans participate
.......................Environmental Protection Agency created; Ntional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration created;
...................................Clean Air Act becomes law
.......................Atomic leak at Nevada test site forces evacuation of hundreds
.......................A MA grand jury chooses not to indict Sen. Edward Kennedy in the death of Mary Jo Kopechne,
...................................who drowned when Kennedy's car plunged into a tidal pool on Chappaquiddick Island
.......................Hughes Act: US Federal law recognizes drug and alcohol addiction as a disease
.......................The Lutheran Church in America changes its bylaws to allow the ordination of women; the 1st
...................................female pastor in the Lutheran Ministry, Elizabeth Platz, is ordained
.......................Thor Heyerdahl sails from Morocco to Latin America in Ra II, a papyrus boat, to prove Egyptians
...................................made the same journey 4,000 years earlier
.......................Deadly cyclone in Bangladesh kills approx. 300,000 people
.......................Diane Crump, 1st woman jockey to ride in the Kentucky Derby
.......................3 Canadian inventors introduce IMAX movies
.......................Paul McCartney leaves the Beatles, disbanding the most successful pop group in history
.......................Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty
.......................The Feminist Press founded, the oldest independent publisher of women's writing in the world
.......................Elizabeth Bishop awarded the National Book Award for Complete Poems; Richard Howard wins Pulitzer
...................................Prize for Poetry; Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Denise Levertov, Relearning the Alphabet; Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings; Toni
...................................Morrison, The Bluest Eye; James Dickey, Deliverance; W.S. Merwin, The Carrier of Ladders


1971............Vietnam War: fighting spreads to Laos and Cambodia; US conducts large-scale bombings raids
...................................against North Vietnam; US air support allows South Vietnamese to invade Laos along the
...................................Ho Chi Minh Trail
.......................Pentagon Papers published in the New York Times and the Washington Post
.......................US Supreme Court orders busing to end segregation in public schools
.......................People United to Serve Humanity (Operation PUSH) formed by Jesse Jackson to call for economic
...................................equality for African Americans
.......................26th Amendment lowers voting age from 21 to 18
.......................US explodes hydrogen bomb beneath Amchitka Island, AK
.......................Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: formation of 12 regional corporations, which are given title to
...................................ancestral lands and settlement money and the power to manage resources in the interest of
...................................indigenous groups
.......................US Supreme Court upholds death penalty
.......................US and USSR sign treaty banning nuclear weapons on the ocean floor
.......................Convicts revolt at Attica Prison, hold 32 guards; 1,000 riot police sent in to quell violence; 37 killed
.......................London Bridge purchased by private investor, moved to Lake Havasu City, AZ
.......................Nixon opens trade with China; China makes its formal entry into United Nations
.......................Apollo 14 and 15 crews explore the moon's surface
.......................1st microprocessors developed by Intel
.......................Doctors Without Borders formed to bring medical personnel to war zones and other international hot spots
.......................Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) developed by Raymond Damadian, a trained violinist. Scans and
................................. analyzes any part of the human body in minute detail; becomes widely used medical diagnostic
................................. tool
.......................Anglican Church ordains 1st women priests
.......................Switzerland gives women the vote in federal elections
.......................Cigarette ads banned from TV in US
.......................Amtrak begins to operate US passenger RRs
.......................1st road safety signs for schools: a yellow sign shaped like baseball home plates with two figures in
................................. black introduced for use through
out US
.......................Email developed by American iventor Ray Tomlinson
.......................John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts opens in Washington, DC
.......................Pablo Neruda of Chile wins Nobel Prize in Literature; William S. Merwin wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry
.......................Conceptual Art begins
.......................Sylvia Plath, The Bell Jar


1972.............d. Marianne Moore; d. John Berryman
.......................Nixon's 8-point peace plan for Vietnam announced; US asks POW release in exchange for withdrawal
...................................of troops; massive B-52 bomb raids of North Vietnam
.......................Nixon meets with leaders from China and USSR
.......................Republic of China donates a pair of giant pandas to the US; they are exhibited at the National Zoo in
...................................Washington, DC
.......................Watergate break-in at Democratic National Committee Headquarters; Watergate Trials of 5 defendants
...................................begin; Post wins Pulitzer Prize in Journalism for coverage by Woodward and Bernstein
.......................Pres. candidate George Wallace of AL shot and partially paralyzed by Arthur Bremer
.......................Cesar Chavez signs FL's 1st contract for migrant farm workers
.......................Marine Mammal Act passed by US Congress; makes killing of all whales, deolpins and porpoises illegal
.......................EPA bans use of DDT in the US; Clean Water Act and Pesticide Control Act signed into law
.......................Syphilis scandal: Public Health Service reveals it has studied syphilis in African American men in Macon
...................................County, AL for 40 years without treating them
.......................Shirley Chisholm becomes 1st African-American woman to run for US President
.......................Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, outlwing "practices that are fair in form but discirminatory in
...................................operation" is expanded to educational institutions
.......................Arab terrorists kill 2 Israeli Olympic athletes in Munich, take 9 others hostage; all hostages and terrorists
...................................killed in shoot-out with W. German police and soldiers
.......................American Psychiatric Assn. stops classifying homosexuality as a mental illness
.......................1st CAT scans
.......................1st portable telephones
.......................Polaroid develops 1st instant camera
.......................1st liquid crystal display (LCD) digital watch, the Pulsar, from Hamilton Watch Co.
.......................1st hand-held electronic calculator, created by Jack S. Kilby, and American inventor
.......................1st computer game consolue, the Odyssey by Magnavox, includes such games as shootout and pingpong
.......................Australia grants voting rights to Aborigines
.......................Washington Redskins football team agrees to change offensive words in their fight song and stops cheerleaders
...................................from wearing "Indian style" wigs with black braids; does not agree to change team name
.......................James Wright wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Heinrich Boll wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck; Sylvia Plath, Winter Trees


1973..............d. W.H. Auden, d. Pablo Neruda
.......................Vietnam War cease fire agreement signed: total war losses from 1965 - 1973 are 45,948 combat deaths,
...................................10,298 noncombat deaths, 202,640 wounded
.......................Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision legalizes abortion in US
.......................Watergate scandal: several top Nixon officials resign; serious talk of impeachment begins; White House
...................................releases tape recordings of conversations between the Pres. and aides with gaps; defendants plead
...................................guilty; John Dean implicates President Nixon
.......................VP Spiro Agnew resigns over tax evasion charges; Gerald Ford named to replace him
.......................US Supreme Court rules individual states may not prohibit abortions during 1st 6 mos. of pregnancy
.......................Native American activists occupy Wounded Knee, SD for 70 days
.......................National Black Feminist Organization founded
.......................Endangered Species Act signed into law: requires federal authorities to identify threatened or endangered
...................................animal and plant species and help them recover, often by restricting how their habitats may be used
.......................Elaine Noble becomes 1st openly gay person elected to a state legislature, in Massachusetts
.......................UpStairs Lounge, a gay bar that also served as home to the Metropolitan Community Church in New Orleans,
...................................is firebombed; 32 die; no one ever charged with the crime
.......................Energy crisis: petroleum shortage, Arab oil embargo
.......................Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match
.......................Ethyl Payne of the Chicago Defender reports from Vietnam; 1st African-American woman war correspondent
.......................1st annual Iditarod race in AK (Anchorage to Nome by dog sled)
.......................US launches Skylab, 1st manned space station. 3 crews of 3 atronauts worked for a total of 171 days,
...................................conducting experiments in zero gravity. Skylab burned up and scattered in pieces over the Indian
...................................Ocean in July 1979
.......................1st cell phones, from Motorola
.......................1st plastic soda bottles, developed by chemist Nathaniel Wyeth
.......................1st Cuisinarts developed by Electrostar, a German company
.......................USSR agrees to abide by terms of the Universal Copyright Convention
.......................Sydney Opera House opens in Syndey, Australia; architect Jørn Utzon
.......................Maxine Kumin wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Patrick White wins Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................World Trade Center opens in NYC; architect Minoru Yamasaki


1974.............d. Anne Sexton
.......................Nixon becomes 1st US Pres to resign from office, over Watergate scandal
.......................Gerald Ford inaugurated 39th US President; only unelected Pres.
.......................Nixon granted unconditional pardon for Federal crimes
.......................Watergate: House Judiciary Committee recommends impeachment of Nixon
.......................Pres. Ford grants limited amnesty to Vietnam War draft evaders and military deserters
.......................Ella Grasso elected Gov. of CT, 1st woman to become governor in US through election rather than by
.................................succeeding her husband
.......................Hawaii 1st state to require employers to provide health insurance to all workers
.......................National speed limit of 55 mph enacted
.......................Gasoline shortage leads to rationing throughout the winter months; year-round daylight-saving
...................................time adopted to save fuel (later repealed)
.......................Safe Drinking Water Act signed into law
.......................Heiress Patricia Hearst is kidnapped by Symbionese Liberation Army, joins captors
.......................11 women ordained as Episcopal priests by 4 US bishops, acting in defiance of church law
.......................Largest private employer in US, AT&T, bans discrimination against homosexuals
.......................India becomes 6th nation to explode a nuclear device; Great Britain, France, and China conduct
.................................nuclear tests
.......................Isabel Peron of Argentina, world's 1st female president
.......................1st bar codes and scanners used for food products in US
.......................1st digital cameras developed by Kodak
.......................Frank Robinson becomes 1st major league baseball team manager, of the Cleveland Indians
.......................1st statue of an American woman erected in DC: Mary McLeod Bethune in Lincoln Park
.......................The Center for Book Arts founded in NYC, 1st nonprofit dedicated to traditional crafts of bookmaking
.......................Robert Lowell wins 2nd Pulitzer Prize in PoetryEyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson share the Nobel
.................................PPrize for Literature
.......................Anne Sexton, The Death Notebooks; Gary Snyder, Turtle Island (awarded Pulitzer Prize for
.................................Poetry); Ursula K. LeGuin, The Dispossessed; Galway Kinnell, The Avenue Bearing the
.................................Initial of Christ into the New World


1975.............US ends 2 decades of military involvement in Vietnam: US shuts down embassy in Phnom Penh;
.................................Saigon surrenders to Communists
.......................Congress extends Voting Rights Act and adds Latinos under protection
.......................Indian Self-Determination and Education Act gives tribes sovereignty, breaking the paternalistic
.................................grip that the Bureau of Indian Affairs held over reservation life
.......................Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare releases new regulations to equalize opportunities for
.................................women and girls in schools and colleges
.......................Boston public schools begin court-ordered city-wide busing program to integrate classrooms
.......................1st Rhodes Scholarships open to women
.......................1st personal computers, the Altair 800, created by H. Edward Roberts, sold as a kit with assembly
.................................instructions
.......................1st calculator watch
.......................Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton becomes 1st US-born saint
.......................International Woman's Year conference in Mexico City adopts 10-year plan to improve status of
.................................women
.......................ME repeals sodomy laws and lowers the age of consent between consenting adults to 14
.......................Eugenio Montale wins Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................Gary Snyder, Turtle Island (wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry); Sterling Brown, The Last Ride of Wild Bill


1976..............US Bicentennial Celebration; in DC, 1 million people come to the National Mall to see fireworks
.......................Viking I lands on Mars
.......................US Supreme Court rules states may prosecute individuals for homosexual acts
.......................US Supreme Court rules death penalty is not cruel or unusual punishment; most states subsequently
................................reinstate capital punishment
.......................Legionnaire's Disease: mysterious illness kills 29 at Philadelphia American Legion Convention
.......................US Air Force Academy admits 1st 155 women students
.......................National Academy of Science reports gases from spray cans can damage the atmosphere's ozone layer
.......................Apple I computer designed
.......................1st pop-top aluminum cans developed by Daniel Cudkzik
.......................National Air and Space Museum opens, Washington, DC
.......................Metro, DC subway system, begins operation
.......................In a blind taste test, 9 top French wine experts award a California wine top prize for the 1st time; leads
................................to a boom in CA wineries
.......................Christo, “Running Fence in CA
.......................Pushcart Prizes 1st awarded; publishes annual anthology of best creative writing from small presses and
...................................literary journals; Saul Bellow wins Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................Elizabeth Bishop, Geography III; Maxine Hong Kingston, The Woman Warrior; Robert Creeley,
.................................Selected Poems
; John Ashbery, Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (wins Pulitzer Prize and
.................................National Book Award)


1977 .............James E. Carter inaugurated 39th US President
.......................Creation of Dept. of Energy
.......................Trans-Alaskan oil pipeline opens
.......................Pres. Carter pardons draft evaders of Vietnam War
.......................NYC Blackout: rampant looting, vandalism, and other criminal activity leads to arrests of 3,300
.......................1,400 arrested at protest at Seabrook nuclear plant in NH; starts national debate on safety of nuclear power
.......................1st female Episcopal priest, Rev. Jacqueline Means
.......................US tests neutron bomb
.......................15 nations sign nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
.......................Angioplasty developed by Zurich doctor Andreas Gruentizig to open clogged arteries
.......................WY decriminalizes private consensual adult homosexual acts
.......................Renee Richards banned from the US Open Women's Tennis tournament due to her sex change; officials
.................................deem her history as a man gives her an unfair advantage.  The ruling is reversed the following year as
................................."grossly unfair" and Richards reaches the finals
.......................Pompidou Center opens in Paris; architects Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers
.......................Bette Davis becomes 1st women to get a Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute
.......................The Education of Little Tree published, the supposedly autobiographical story of a half-Cherokee boy that
.................................becomes popular among young adult readers. The author's real name is exposed, along with the fact
.................................that the "memoir" is fiction
.......................James Merrill wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; VIcente Aleixandre wins Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................Richard Eberhart, Collected Poems (wins National Book Award)


1978..............Canal zone ceded to Republic of Panama
.......................Camp David Accords: Middle East Peace Treaty
.......................Families evacuated from Love Canal, NY due to toxic waste leakage
.......................US Congress passes the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, allowing a secret court to rule on
.................................requests by counter-intelligence officers to put espionage and terrorist suspects under
.................................surveillance
.......................Regents of U. of CA v. Bakke: US Supreme Court rules that race may be considerd as a factor in
..................................university admission decisions, however such "affirmative action" programs can not use quotas
.......................Betty Ford, former 1st Lady, goes public with her treatment for alcohol and drug addiction, helping to
.................................diminish the stigma long association with addiction and treatment
.......................1st test tube baby born in London, Louise Brown
.......................1st transatlantic balloon crossing, by 3 Americans
.......................917 Americans die in mass suicide at Peoples Temple in Guyana, including leader Jim Jones
.......................Pope John Paul II of Poland becomes 1st non-Italian pope in 456 years
......................."Treasures of Tutankhamen" exhibit tours the US; 1st blockbuster art exhibition
.......................Allan Bakke sues U of CA Medical School for "reverse discrimination"; US Supreme Court upholds a
.................................lower court decision requiring the school to admit him
......................Harriet Tubman is 1st African American woman portrayed on a US Postal Stamp
......................1st Ironman Triathalon competition held: athletes swim, run, and bicycle
.......................Subway system in DC opens
.......................East Building of the National Gallery of Art opens, Washington, DC
......................Isaac Bashevis Singer wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Adrienne Rich, Dream of a Common Language; Howard Nemerov, Collected Poems (wins Pulitzer
.................................and National Book Award); David Ignatow, Tread the Dark


1979.............d. Elizabeth Bishop
.......................Creation of Dept. of Education
.......................US recognition of People's Republic of China
.......................US Surgeon General reports smoking causes lung cancer
.......................US admits thousands of troops in Vietnam were exposed to Agent Orange
.......................Worst nuclear accident in US history: atomic leak at Three Mile Island reactor in PA
.......................In 1st court case in which a wife accuses her husband of rape, John Rideout is exonerated by a jury
.......................US farmers demonstrate on the Mall in DC for farm relief
.......................Klansmen in AL march from Selma to Montgomery for “"white rights"
.......................1st gay rights march on Washington, DC.  Keynote address by Audre Lorde, poetry reading by Alan Ginsberg.
.......................US drops rule barring suspected homosexuals from entering the country
.......................US and Russia sign SALT II agreement
.......................Soviet Union invades Afghanistan
.......................1st British woman Premier elected, Margaret Thatcher
.......................During Islamic revolution in Iran, the US-backed Shah is overthrown and 52 Americans are taken
.................................hostage at the US embassy
.......................Air New Zealand tourist flight over Antartica crashes into Mount Erebus, 257 die
.......................Mother Teresa awarded Nobel Peace Prize
.......................Pope John Paul II celebrates Mass on the National Mall in DC for 175,000 attendees
.......................C-SPAN begins broadcasting uncut, live hearings from the US Senate
.......................1st portable personal music system, the Sony Walkman, introduced
.......................Rap music 1st becomes a commercial success with the Sugarhill Gang's hit "Rapper's Delight"
.......................1st laptop computer, invented for NASA's space shuttle program
.......................Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party
.......................Albert Einste
in Memorial opens in Washington, DC on the grounds of the National Academy of Sciences,
.................................with a sculpture by Robert Berks and design by James van Sweden

.......................Robert Penn Warren wins 2nd Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Odysseus Elytis wins Nobel Prize in Literature



1980..............d. Muriel Rukeyser
.......................US boycotts Olympics in Moscow in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
.......................Mariel boatlift: influx of Cuban refugees to US
.......................Attempted rescue of US hostages in Iran fails; 8 US servicemen die
.......................Mount St. Helens erupts in OR, spewing ash 60,000 feet in the air
.......................1st woman bishop of a US church: Methodist Marjorie Matthews
.......................World Health Org. announces the worldwide eradication of smallpox
.......................Construction completed on the Very Large Array, 27 radio wave receivers tuned to emanations from
...................................stars, galaxies, and quasars, in Socorro, NM
.......................CNN, the 1st 24 hour TV news channel, begins broadcasting
.......................The World Wide Web developed by British inventor Tim Berners-Lee
.......................MADD, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, founded
.......................Polish union Solidarity formed
.......................3M begins manufacturing a new office product, Post-It Notes
.......................Sherry Lansing, 1st woman head of a major movie studio
.......................Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site dedicated in Atlanta, GA
.......................Women's Righ
ts National Historic Park opens in Seneca Falls, NY
.......................Murder of pop star John Lennon
.......................Donald Justice wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry: Czeslaw Milosz wins Nobel Prize in Literature
.......................Eudora Welty, Collected Short Stories


1981.............Ronald Reagan inaugurated 40th US President; only professional actor to become Pres.
.......................Reagon shot in assassination attempt at the Washington Hilton hotel, Washington, DC, along
................................. with the White House Press Secretary, a DC policeman, and a secret service agen
t.
................................. The gunman, John Hinckley, Jr., is incarcerated at St. Elizabeth's Hospital

.......................Hostages in Iran returned to US after 444 days in captivity
.......................1st official notice of AIDS: Centers for Disease Control report “"unusual" occurrence of deadly
.................................form of pneumonia in 5 homosexual men in NY and LA
.......................1st female Supreme Court Justice appointed, Sandra Day O'Connor
.......................12,000 striking aircraft controllers dismissed by Presidential decree, breaking up the union in a
.................................devastating blow to labor
.......................US Supreme Court requires parental consent for teen abortions
.......................US Supreme Court upholds law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women
.......................Mauritania becomes the last country in the world to abolish slavery, but the law is rarely upheld,
.................................and slavery continues there
.......................Martial law declared in Poland, dozens killed; Solidarity union banned
.......................Pope John Paul II wounded by Turkish assassin Mehmet Ali Agca in St. Peter's Square
.......................1st space shuttle launched
.......................1st cloned mammal: 3 mice created in a lab in Switzerland
.......................1st test tube baby born in the US; Elizabeth Carr born by in vitro fertilization
.......................MTV broadcasts, 1st cable TV 24-hour music channel
.......................James Schyler, The Morning of the Poem, wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Elias Canetti wins Nobel
.................................Prize in Literature

1982.............500,000 protestors in NYC against nuclear arms
.......................Equal Rights Amendment is defeated after it fails to gain ratification in the states
.......................Falklands War between Britain and Argentina
.......................Rev. Sun Myung Moon of the Unification Church marries 4,000 in mass ceremony in Madison Sq.
.................................Garden
.......................Jarvik, 1st permanent artificial heart, implanted in patient Barney Clark
.......................Vietnam Veterans Memorial dedicated in Washington DC, designed by Maya Lin
.......................1st use of lethal injections to execute criminals, in TX
.......................1st digital film introduced by Eastman Kodak
.......................1st compact discs
.......................Michael Jackson releases the pop music album "Thriller"
.......................The Library of America begins republishing classic American literature
.......................Sylvia Plath awarded posthumous Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Gabriel Garcia Marquez wins Nobel
................................. Prize in Literature
.......................Alice Walker, The Color Purple (wins Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1983, making Walker the first
...................................African-American woman to win the award for fiction)


1983.............Astronaut Sally Ride, 1st US woman in space on shuttle Challenger
.......................US invades Grenada, overthrows Marxist leaders
.......................Bombing of US Embassy in Beirut kills 40; bombing of Marine headquarters kills 241
.......................FDA approves new sponge contraceptive
.......................Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthday becomes national holiday
.......................1st digital compact disc players
.......................1st video camera developed for home use, the Sony Betamovie camcorder
.......................A German magazine publishes excerpts from what are said to be the diary of Adolph Hitler,
.................................but are later revealed to be fake
.......................Michael Graves, Portland Building, Portland OR
.......................Galway Kinnell wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; William Golding wins Nobel Prize for Literature


1984.............Union Carbide plant in India releases toxic fumes that kill over 3,000 people
.......................US and the Vatican establish full diplomatic ties for 1st time in 117 years
.......................Dept. of Housing and Urban Development begin to collect statistics on homelessness
.......................Cause of AIDS discovered to be a virus
.......................Jesse Jackson wins more than 3.2 million votes in Democratic Presidential primaries
.......................Mass shooting in a McDonald's Restaurant, San Ysidro, CA: Oliver Huberty, an out-of-work
...................................security guard, kills 21
.......................Apple Computers introduces MacIntosh, an affordable, user-friendly small computer with
.................................a graphical user interface and a mouse
.......................Surgeon General issues report on harmful effects of “"second-hand"”smoke from cigarettes
.......................Beginning of rap music
.......................Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, assassinated
.......................Bishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa wins Nobel Peace Prize
.......................Maya Lin, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, DC
.......................Mary Oliver's American Primitive wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Sterling Brown named 1st
...................................Poet Laureate of DC; Jaroslav Seifert wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Louise Erdrich, Love Medicine


1985..............Hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica reported by British scientists
.......................Actor Rock Hudson dies of AIDS, forcing the new disease into public consciousness
.......................Ryan White, a 7th grade boy from Indiana, contracts AIDS from a blood infusion
.......................Pentagon begins testing all new recruits for AIDS
.......................1st reliable test for HIV becomes widely available in US
.......................Philadelphia police fire bomb MOVE, an armed radical group, killing 11 and destroying 61 homes
.......................US and USSR attend nuclear arms summit in Geneva, Switzerland
.......................Iran-Contra Affair: secret arms deals conducted between US and Iran
.......................1st woman to win the Iditarod Trail Dog Sled Race in AK: Libby Riddles
.......................Wreck of the Titanic discovered by American oceanographer Robert Ballard
.......................Live Aid rock concert in PA raises over $50 million for famine relief
.......................The Chinese Arch constructed in DC, a gift from the People's Republic of China
.......................Carolyn Kizer's Yin wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Claude Simon wins Nobel Prize in Literature


1986.............Martin Luther King, Jr. Day 1st observed
.......................US Space Shuttle Challenger explodes on liftoff, killing 6, including teacher Christa McAuliffe
.......................US bombs Libya
.......................Nuclear reactor at Chernobyl explodes in the USSR; not acknowledged by Soviet government
.................................until high radiation is reported in Scandinavia
.......................Rapid spread of crack cocaine use prompts Congress to pass new anti-drug legislation
.......................Bible translated into Navajo
.......................Christian evangelical protesters begin mass protests against abortion at doctor's offices in a
.................................movement that will soon take the name Operation Rescue. Protest tactics include blocking
.................................entrances to medical offices, massing at the homes of doctors known to provide abortion
.................................services, and posting public signs and distributing brochures naming such doctors
.......................Passage of the Firearms Own
ers Protection Act gives legal standing to a new interpretation of the
................................Second Amendment to the US Constitution, to cover idividual citizens' rights to keep and bear
................................arms. The US has the highest rate of gun ownership in the world; in 1980, nealry one in three
................................Americans owns a gun

.......................Mass shooting at Post Office in Edmond, OK: Pat Sherrill, postal worker, kills 14
.......................US Justice Dept. rules AIDS patients entitled to protection as disabled persons
.......................Student basketball star at the University of Maryland, Len Bias, dies of cocaine overdose. This
.................................highly-publicized death leads to passage of Federal law on mandatory minimum sentences
.................................for drug offenses, which creates a 20-fold increase in the US prison population
.......................Ann Bancroft becomes 1st woman to reach the North Pole by dogsled
.......................1st digital cameras invented by Kodak
.......................Jeff Koons, Rabbit
.......................1st US Poet Laureate, Robert Penn Warren
.......................Elie Wiesel wins Nobel Peace Prize; Henry Taylor's The Flying Change wins Pulitzer Prize in
.................................Poetry; Elizabeth Frank wins the Pulitzer Prize in Biography for Louise Bogan: A Portrait;
.................................Wole Soyinka wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Allen Ginsberg, White Shroud; Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid's Tale


1987.............Stock market crash: 22.6% plunge is the larges one-day decline since 1914
.......................The Tower Commission report on the Iran-Contra Affair rebukes Pres. Reagan for failing to
.................................control his national security staff
.......................US Supreme Court upholds racial quotas for job promotions
.......................US Supreme Court upholds right to require leaves for pregnant women
.......................Gary Hart drops out of race for US Presidency after news team stakes out his house and reveals
.................................his mistress has spent the night in his home while his wife was away. This highly-publicized
.................................news story redefines how the media covers the personal lives of public figures
.......................Montreal Protocol: many nations--but not the US--agree to phase out chlorofluorocarbons
.................................and other chemicals that destroy the ozone layer
.......................FDA approves the drug AZT for treatment against HIV/AIDS, eventually leading to the HAART
.................................treatment and thousands of lives saved
.......................Prozac licensed by FDA, a drug to treat depression
.......................US Navy Memorial opens in Washington, DC
.......................Restoration of Michelangelo frescoes in Rome's Sistine Chapel
.......................Start of the AIDS Quilt, a massive folk art project to memorialize individuals who died of AIDS
.......................Rita Dove wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Joseph Brodsky wins Nobel Prize for Literature
.......................Toni Morrison, Beloved


1988..............1.4 million illegal aliens in the US seek amnesty under new immigration law
........................City of Richmond v. J.A. Crosson Co.: US Supreme Court rules that setting aside a portion of
...................................public contracts for minority contractors is unconstitutional
........................Jesse Jackson gains a significant percentage of the vote in Democratic primaries for the
...................................presidential nomination, appealing to white and Black voters alike
.......................Gen. Colin Powell becomes 1st African American appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
.......................Terrorists bomb Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland
.......................Climate scientist James Hansen testifies to Congress about Global Warning
.......................Matthew Henson, African American explorer who traveled to the North Pole with Robert Peary,
..................................reinterred with honors in Arlington National Cemetery
.......................Gertrude Elion and George Hitchings win Nobel Prize in Medicine for developing drugs to treat
...................................cancer and herpes, and anti-rejection drugs to for skin graft and kidney transplant patients
.......................N.W.A.'s influential album "Straight Outa Compton" changes the direction of rap music by
...................................incorporating sampling techniques and sexualy violent lyrics
.......................Naguib Mahfouz becomes 1st Arab writer to win Nobel Prize for Literature; William Meredith
...................................wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry


1989.............George Bush inaugurated 41st US President
.......................One of the worst oil spills in history: Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, AK
.......................Supreme Court upholds Roe v. Wade but rules that states can put new restraints on a woman's right
..................................to abortion
.......................Douglas Wilder becoms governor of VA; 1st African American elected chief exec. of a state
.......................Earthquake in CA; 67 die
.......................1st live-donor liver transplant performed in IL
.......................Berlin Wall torn down as East Germany opens its borders (originally built 1961; 192 people killed on
...................................Wall trying to scape East Germany); Brandenburg Gate opened and Germany reunited
.......................US invades Panama; Gen. Noriega flees; new Pres. sworn in as chaos consumes country
.......................Massacre of Chinese demonstrators in Tiananmen Square
.......................Norway develops a new policy for control of its northern lands, forming the Saamediggi, a parliament
...................................elected by the indigenous Saami people
.......................Culture Wars: National Endowment for the Arts grants retroactively withdrawn from four visual artists
.......................Corcoran Museum in DC cancels photography exhibit by Robert Mapplethorpe, is picketed by civil
.................................liberties activists, loses large donor; museum director resigns
.......................Civil Rights Memorial opens in Montgomery, AL
.......................I.M. Pei, Pyramid, Louvre Museum, Paris
.......................Richard Wilbur wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Camilo Jose Cela wins Nobel Prize in Literature


1990..............War Against drugs: US makes agreements with Peru, Bolivia,and Columbia for closer cooperation
.......................Americans with Disabilities Act passed
.......................After 1990 census, courts order US Congress to redraw congressional districts to create more
...................................African American majorities; as a result, a record 17 African Americans are elected to the 103rd
...................................Congress, several from the South for the 1st time since Reconstruction
.......................Gary Franks of CT is 1st African American Republican elected to the House of Representatives in
...................................nearly 60 years
.......................Happy Land Social Club fire: arson claims the lives of 87, mostly Honduran immigrants, at an unlicensed
...................................bar in The Bronx, NY
.......................Breakup of the Soviet Union; Germany reunified; Soviet law allows religious freedom
.......................Nelson Mandela, leader of the African National Congress in South Africa, freed from prison after
...................................25 years
.......................Frederick Gregory, 1st African American astronaut to command a space flight, the Discovery; mission
...................................deploys the Hubble Telescope 350 miles above the Earth
.......................Navy Memorial constructed in DC
.......................Mayor of Washington, DC, Marion Barry, caught smoking crack cocaine, serves 6 months in prison
.......................British scientist Tim Berners-Lee creates HTML, Hyper Text Markup Language, a computer program
...................................that facilitates information sharing and births the World Wide Web
......................1st completely digital camera, Dycam Model 1
.......................Washington National Cathedral completed in Washington DC (83 years after groundbreaking)
.......................Novelist Marita Golden forms the Zora Neale Hurston/Richard Wright Foundation to support writers
...................................of African descent
.......................Charles Simic wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Octavio Paz wins Nobel Prize for Literature


1991..............First .Gulf War: US sends troops after Iraq invades Kuwait
.......................Warsaw Pact dissolved
.......................Civil Rights Act of 1991 aims to reduce gender discrimination
.......................Clarence Thomas appointed a Supreme Court judge, becoming 2nd African American in this position
.......................Lawyer Anita Hill testifies in Judge Thomas's nomination, alleging sexual harassment
.......................US Supreme Court bans abortion counseling in federally-supported health clinics
.......................Freddie Mercury, lead singer of rock band Queen, dies of AIDS; basketball player Magic Johnson
..................................diagnosed with AIDS
.......................Tailhook affair: Navy and Marine Corps fliers accused of sexually assaulting 26 women
.......................Mass shooting in a cafeteria in Killeen, TX: George Hennard kills 23, wounds 20
.......................8 people sealed inside Biosphere II for 2 years, a giant greenhouse
.......................National Law Enforcement Officers' Memorial constructed in DC
.......................Mount Pleasant Riots in DC last 3 days, ending when the city government agrees to hire more bilingual
..................................cops and to form a Mayor's Office of Latino Affairs
.......................Nadine Gordimer of South Africa wins Nobel Prize for Literature; Mona Van Duyn wins Pultizer Prize for Poetry


1992..............Jury acquits 4 LA policemen in beating of Rodney King; 2 days of rioting leave 58 dead
........................Doctors announce that Legionaire's Disease can be spread by drinking water as well as through AC
...................................systems

........................Great flood of Chicago: century's old tunnel system and adjacent basements fill with Chicago River water
........................Carol Mosley Braun of IL is 1st African American woman elected to US Senate
........................Manzanar National Historic Site dedicated in Independence, CA to commemorate persons of Japanese
...................................ancestry incarcerated during WWII
........................Salem
Village Witchcraft Victims' Memorial opens in Danvers, MA
........................James Tate wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Derek Walcott wins Nobel Prize for Literature

........................Edward P. Jones, Lost in the City

1993.............Bill Clinton inaugurated 42nd US President
.......................Bomb built by Islamic extremists explodes in the parkinig garage of the World Trade Center in NY;
.................................6 killed and more than 1,000 injured
.......................US ends ban on women pilots in combat
.......................Internet expands with the World Wide Web
.......................US troops sent to Somalia
.......................US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms firebombs Branch Davidian cult compound in
..................................Waco, TX, killing 80
.......................The peak of number of new AIDS cases per year in the US
.......................Dr. David Gunn murdered in front of the abortion clinic where he works; 1st of 8 US doctors murdered
..................................by anti-abortion extremists
.......................US Holocaust Museum opens in DC, building designed by James Ingo
Freed
.......................Smithsonian Institution National Postal Museum opens, Washington, DC
.......................Bill proposing statehood for DC defeated in Congress
.......................EPA publishes findings on the health hazards of secondhand cigarette smoke
.......................1st commercial World Wide Web browners with graphical-user interfaces revolutionize internet use
.......................Maastricht Treaty: formation of the European Union
.......................Czechoslovakia divides into two countries
.......................South African parliament dissolves
.......................1st use of DNA evidence to absolve death row prisoner; Kirk Bloodsworth exonerated
.......................Toni Morrison becomes 1st African American winner of Nobel Prize for Literature; Louise Gluck wins
..................................Pulitzer Prize for Poetry


1994..............North American Free Trade Agreement passed
.......................US sends troops to Haiti
.......................Brady Bill requires 5-day waiting period on handgun purchases by individuals
.......................Pres. Clinton signs into law the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, Making blockading
.................................the entrance to a facility in which abortions are performed a federal crime
.......................Byron De La Beckwith convicted in the 1963 murder of Medgar Evers, the NAACP field secretary
.......................Burning of many African American churches throughout the US (through 1996)
.......................FDA approves the sale of 1st genetically engineered tomato
.......................Nelson Mandela elected 1st Black President of South Africa
.......................Serbs begin campaign of "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia
.......................62 year old Italian becomes oldest woman on record to give birth
.......................1st Palm Pilot handheld computer, created by Jeff Hawkins, American inventor
.......................Yusef Komunyakaa wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Dolores Kendrick appointed 2nd Poet Laureate
...................................of DC; Kenzaburo Oe wins Nobel Prize for Literature


1995.............Bombing of Alfred P. Murrah federal building in OK by Timothy McVeigh; 168 killed
.......................Pennsylvania Ave. in front of the White House closed to vehicular traffic, DC institutes anti-terror
.................................policies throughout the city, errecting Jersey barriers, perimeter fences, bollards: an
................................."architecture of fear"
.......................Trial of O.J. Simpson for murder of his ex-wife and her male friend reveals continued racial
..................................divisions in the US; Simpson is declared not guilty
.......................US Supreme Court rules new black-majority voting districts in GA, NC, and LA unconstitional,
...................................as they violate equal protection of white voters
.......................Balkans peace pact signed
.......................Massive earthquake in Japan kills 5,000 and affects more than 4 million
.......................A single huge wave of 84 feet recorded in Norway, proving the "rogue wave" theory is true
.......................EBay founded by Pierre Omidyar and Jeff Skoll: on-line auction site connects sellers and buyers
..................................but does not sell anything itself
.......................Million Man March organized by the Nation of Islam in Washington to promote unity and social
...................................justice among Black men; attracts a crowd on the National Mall of 850,000
.......................Korean War Veterans Memoria
l dedicated in Washington, DC with art by Frank Gaylord and Louis Nelson
.......................Marine Corps War Memorial (aka Iwo Jima Memorial) dedicated in Arlington, VA with sculpture by
...................................Felix de
We
ldon
.......................1st digital video disks (DVDs), by Warner Advanced Media Operations
.......................Sculpture of Arthur Ashe added to Monument Avenue in Richmond, VA; all other statues
..................................commemorate Civil War figures of the South, including Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis
.......................New England Holocuast Memorial opens in Boston, MA
.......................American Visionary Art Museum opens in Baltimore
.......................Christo and Jeanne-Claude wrap the Reichstag, Berlin
.......................Philip Levine wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Seamus Heaney wins Nobel Prize in Literature


1996..............US troops in Bosnia, part of NATO peacekeeping force
.......................Welfare Reform bill passes
.......................Bombing of US military housing in Saudi Arabia kills 19
.......................Fox News launched, with new system of conservative argument and punditry instead of
.................................traditional neutral news reporting. The success of this format leads competitors to follow
.................................its approach, changing the content and style of cable news coverage
.......................Effective HIV therapy is widely adopted, and the incidence of AIDS begins to fall dramatically;
..................................after this time, AIDS will cease to be like a plague and become more of a chronic but
..................................largely manageable disease in the US, akin to diabetes
.......................US Congress passes the Defense of Marriage Act, which defines marriage as a union between a man
..................................and a woman only
.......................1st cloned mammal: Dolly the Sheep
.......................Kennewich Man discovered in WA, one of the oldest skeletons ever found in the Americas
.......................Proposition 209 approved by CA voters; an anti-affirmative action measure, it prohibits colleges
...................................and universities in the state from considering criteria of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national
...................................origin in admissions
.......................Henry Ossawa Tanner's "Sand Dunes at Sunset, Atlantic City" is 1st painting by an African American
...................................artist to be added to the White House permanent collection
.......................David S. Reynolds's Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography wins the Bancroft Prize
..................................from Columbia University; Jorie Graham wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Wislawa Szymborska
..................................wins Nobel Prize in Literature

1997..............NASA spacecraft lands on Mars
........................Madeleine Albright, 1st woman Secretary of State
........................Abner Louima, a Haitian immigrant in custody in NYC, tortured by white police officers
........................3 fossilized skulls found in Ethiopia are oldest known remains of modern humans, approx.
..................................160,000 years old. They end two major scientific debates, proving that Neanderthals are
..................................not related to modern humans (but are a hominid offshoot that eventually became extinct),
..................................and that all modern humans developed in Africa and migrated elsewhere (rather than
..................................humans developing simultaneously in other regions of the world)
.......................Death of Deng Xiaoping, return of Hong Kong to China
.......................Julia Butterfly Hill climbs 1,500 year old redwood and lives in it for 2 years, sparing it from loggers
.......................Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial dedicated in Washington, DC, designed by Lawrence Halprin
.......................Oklahoma City National Memorial, designed by Torrey and Hans Butzer, opens to public; becomes
...................................376th US National Park; officilally dedicated 2000
.......................Frank O. Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao; Richard Meier, Getty Center, Los Angeles
.......................1st surviving septuplets born to Bobbi McCaughey of IA
.......................Lisel Mueller wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Dario Fo wins Nobel Prize for Literature


1998.............International Space Station begins construction
.......................Bombing of US embassies in Tanzania and Nairobi kill 225
.......................American computer scientists Larry Page and Sergey Brin launch Google, a powerful search engine
..................................to organize content on the world wide web
.......................Viagra, anti-impotence treatment, approved by FDA
.......................1st surviving octuplets born

.......................Jacob Joseph Chestnut, a US Capitol policeman killed on duty, is 1st African American to be honored
..................................with a ceremonial viewing of his body in the Rotunda of the US Capitol
.......................African American Civil War Memorial opens in DC
.......................Charles Wright wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Jose Saramango wins Nobel for Literature


1999.............US troops in Yugoslavia, part of NATO airstrikes to halt ethnic cleansing in Kosovo
.......................2 students kill 15 at Columbine High School in CO
.......................Impeachment proceedings against Pres. Clinton end with not guilty finding in obstruction
..................................of justice charges
.......................VT legislature enacts "civil unions," extending benefits to same-sex couples
.......................Amadou Diallo, an unarmed West African immigrant, shot 41 times by 4 white NYC polic officers while
...................................standing in the hallway of his apartment; all officers later acquitted of charges of excessive force
.......................US hands over control of Panama Canal Zone to Panama
.......................Establishment of Nunavut Territory in Northern Canada creates a self-governing region of nearly 20
...................................percent of the total land area of Canada administered by the regional population, which is
...................................overwhelmingly Inuit
.......................cloning of 1st human embryo
.......................Dr. Jack Kevorkian, advocate of physician-assisted suicide, convicted of second-degree murder in MI
.......................War erupts in Kosova; serbs agree to pull out; 1st war to be won using air power alone
.......................African-American Civil War Memorial opens in Washington, DC
.......................Blacklist Sculp
ture Garden opens in Los Angeles, CA
.......................Jewish Museum opens in Berlin, architect Daniel Libeskind
.......................Mark Strand wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Gunter Grass wins Nobel Prize in Literature


2000.............Fears of world-wide computer failures, the Y2K Bug, prove unfounded
.......................No clear winner emerges in the Presidential election in November; the Supreme Court votes to
..................................halt ballot recounts in FL and names Bush the next US President. This is the 4th time in
..................................US history that the electoral college seated a candidate who won fewer popular votes
.......................In a widely-publicized case, Federal immigration agents take a young Cuban boy, Elian Gonzalez,
..................................who arrived in the US illiegally, from his Miami relatives
.......................Matthew Shepard murdered in WY for his sexual orientation, sparking a national debate on "hate
...................................crimes"
......................Millenium March on Washington attracts thousands to the National Mall to raise awareness and
...................................visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people; first such national event to include
...................................bisexual and transgender people
.......................The Dow Jones industrial average closes at a record high on January 14, the symbolic end of the 90's
..................................economic expansion. Over the next 2 years, the market will lose more than a third of its
..................................value
.......................Working draft of the Human Genome completed, sequences 3.15 billion letter of the human DNA code
.......................Significant increases in HIV and AIDS cases among gay men in the US tied to use of the drug crystal

..................................
methamphetamine, which lowers inhibitions and compromises the immune system
.......................Bombing of the USS Cole in Yemen kills 17
.......................Formation of a Saami Parliamentary Council, a cooperative governing body with representatives of the

..................................
indigenous peoples of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia to focus on co-management of
..................................
resources and preservation of Saami language and cuture
.......................1st remotely piloted drone aircraft equipped with video cameras used in warfare
.......................1st bluetooth headset
.......................Ruth J. Simmons elected president of Brown University, 1st African American Ivy League president
.......................Oklahoma City National Memorial dedicated in OK, commemorates victims of the 1995 federal building
...................................bombing that killed 168
.......................Beltway Poetry Quarterly begins publication; C.K. Williams wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Go Xingjian
....................................wins Nobel Prize for Literature

2001..............George Bush inaugurated 43rd US President, following one of the most disputed elections in US
...................................history
.......................Colin Powell appointed 1st African American Sec'y of State; Condoleeza Rice appointed 1st African
...................................American National Security Advisor
.......................September 11: terrorists hijack 4 passenger jets and use them as weapons, destroying the World Trade
..................................towers, damaging the Pentagon, and killing 3,000 people in the largest single-day loss of life
..................................in US history. The 19 hijackers are revealed to be Islamic extremists, linked to Osama bin
................................. Laden, a Saudi fundamentalist and millionaire, whose terrorist network, al Quaeda, is believed
..................................to have operations in over 60 countries
.......................Patriot Act: in the name of tighter security, civil liberties are curtailed; law allows law officials to
.................................conduct searches without warrants, monitor financial transactions, and detain and deport
.................................individuals in secret
.......................Hundreds of foreigners in US indefinitely detained, most on immigration charges
.......................Department of Homeland Security created
.......................Anthrax-contaminated mail sent to major newspapers, TV networks, the White House,
..................................Congress, the CIA, and the Supreme Court
......................Timothy McVeigh, OK City bomber, killed by lethal injection in US prison
.......................US War in Afghanistan begins
.......................Apple Computer introduces the iPod, a digital personal sound system
.......................Segway Human Transporter introduced by inventor Dean Kamen
.......................National D-Day Memorial opensin Bed
ford, VA
.......................Sculpture by Robert Graham added to the Roosevelt Memorial in DC, shows FDR in a wheelchair
.......................1st book ceremonially placed in the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt, located approximately on the
...................................site of the ancient Library of Alexandria. Included among 1st volumes: a handwritten 17th c. Qur'an
...................................and a Bible
.......................Stephen Dunn wins Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; Sir Vadiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul wins Nobel Prize for
....................................Literature

2002..............Post-9-11 security efforts in US reveal huge intelligence gaps (the CIA, for instance,
..................................had only 40 agents assigned to counter-terrorism), need for greater airport security,
..................................and an overhaul to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (who actually
..................................approved student visas for 2 of the hijackers after they destroyed the World Trade Center)
.......................US-led military effort in Afghanistan destroys al-Quaeda headquarters and training camps,
..................................but fails to eliminate the terrorist organization or locate its leader, Osama bin Laden
.......................Corporate scandals: Enron and WorldCom go bankrupt, several other major companies are
..................................placed under Federal investigation, for fraud and crooked accounting
.......................Sex abuse scandal in American Catholic Church: reveals church systematically covered up
..................................abuse by clergy; 300 priests resign, another 2,000 accused of molesting children
.......................Massachusetts Supreme Court rules that same-sex couples should be allowed to marry
.......................US and Russia agree to cut nuclear arsenals by up to two-thirds over 10 years
.......................Complete mouse genome sequencing published
.......................1st synthetic virus created in lab at SUNY Stonybrook
.......................1st successful clone of an endangered animal in Italy, a mouflon, a type of wild sheep
.......................11 new moons discovered orbiting Jupiter, bringing total to 39 moons
.......................Snipers Lee Boyd Malvo and John Allen Muhammad terrorize the Washington, DC region with 23
..................................random attacks that kill 15
.......................Last girder from Ground Zero removed in a somber ceremony marking the end of recovery efforts
................................. at the World Trade Center site
.......................Temporary art project in Manhattan, Tribute in Light, recreates World Trade Center with beams of
................................. light to commemorate those killed in the 9-11 attacks
.......................Replica of the slave ship Amistad displayed at Mystic Seaport, CT
.......................Irish Hunger Memorial dedicated in NYC, designed by Brian Tolle
.......................Frank Bidart's Music Like Dirt becomes 1st chapbook to become a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize; Carl
..................................Dennis wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Imre Kertesz wins Nobel Prize for Literature


2003..............Iraq War: citing possession of weapons of mass destruction, links to terrorism, and Saddam
...................................Hussein's despotism as reasons for “"regime change," Pres. Bush launches the 1st
...................................pre-emptive war in US history. The war is strongly criticized by the United Nations
...................................and world leaders (in particular France, Germany, and Russia) for circumventing
...................................international law and disregarding international consensus.
.......................SARS Epidemic: a new disease, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, originates in China
...................................and spreads world-wide, causing 774 deaths. SARS is finally contained by
...................................quarantines and vigorous infection control practices
.......................37 confirmed cases of Monkeypox, related to smallpox, found in the American midwest;
...................................the disease was imported from Africa in Gambian giant pouched rats, an exotic pet,
...................................and jumped to humans
........................US space shuttle Columbia breaks up during landing approach, killing 6 crew members
........................Canadian provinces of Ontario and British Columbia authorize same-sex marriages
........................US Supreme Court overturns all sodomy laws in all states
........................US Supreme Courty upholds affirmative action in education in Grutter v. Bollinger
........................Gov't-sponsored policy of genocide in Darfur region of the Sudan begins; will evetually
...................................displace millions of citizens, destroy villages, create widespread famine
........................Worst heat wave in Europe in hundreds of years; approximately 35,000 die heat-related deaths
........................Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument dedicated in Crow Agency, MT
........................National Cons
titution Center opens in Philadelphia, PA
........................World Trade Center Memorial Competition, the largest design competition in history, generates
...................................5,201 submissions from 63 nations
.......................For the 1st time, more Americans have mobile telephones than land lines
........................Paul Muldoon wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry: John M. Coetzee awarded Nobel Prize for Literature


2004..............Iraq War: Photos published of US soldiers abusing Iraqui prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison; US
....................................troops attach Sunni insurgents at Fallujah
........................Nancy Pelosi of CA named the Democratic leader of the House of Representatives, the 1st
....................................woman to lead a major party in the US Congress
.........................MA becomes 1st state to legalize marriage between members of the same sex. 35 states
...................................introduce legislation in reaction, aimed at preserving the traditional definition of
...................................marriage as a union between a man and a woman
........................Public officials in San Francisco, Portland OR, NY State, and NJ grant marriage licenses to
...................................same sex couples; 4,037 well-publicized marriage licenses issued in San Francisco alone,
...................................although they are later nullified by the CA State Supreme Court; Pres. Bush calls for a
...................................constitutional amendment to protect a conservative definition of marriage as between
...................................one man and one woman
........................Facebook launched, becomes wildly popular social media platform
........................1st US Senate race in which both major-party candidates are Black: Barack Obama is elected in
...................................IL, runs against Alan Keyes
.......................March for Women's Lives event on the National Mall in DC attracts 800,000 to rally for women's
...................................reproductive rights
........................Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian opens in DC
........................WWII Memorial opens in Washington DC, designed by Frederich St. Florian with sculpture by
...................................Raymond Kaskey
........................Terrorist attack in Madrid: 10 bombs explode simultaneously on 4 subway trains, killing over
....................................180
........................Tsunami catastrophe in Asia
........................Continuing "War on Terror" keeps troops in Iraq; Abu Ghraib scandal photos reveal systematic
....................................torture and sexual humiliation of Iraqi prisoners by Americans
.......................The 9/11 Commission report released, blames terrorist attacks on "deep institutional failings"
........................Los Angeles police seize 388 guns from a single man, Wayne Wright, including rifles, shotguns,
....................................handguns, assault weapons, a silencer, and thousands of rounds of ammunition, including
....................................armor-piercing rounds
........................A bridge project (now abandoned) near Port Angeles, WA reveals the largest prehistoric Indian
....................................village and burial ground found in US, with approx. 1,085 human remains, and a huge
....................................trove of ritual and ceremonial artifacts, some dating back 1,700 years. Mass graves from
....................................European-borne infectious fevers that killed 90% of the Klallam tribe, dating from 1780
....................................and 1835, are also part of the site
........................A Belgian woman is 1st to give birth after doctors transplant frozen ovarian tissue; pieces of her
....................................ovaries had been previously removed prior to chemotherapy
........................An earthquake measuring 9.0 off the coast of Sumatra causes tsunamis that kill over 147,000 in
....................................Indonesia, India, and Africa
........................Boston Red Sox win their 1st World Series in 86 years, breaking the "Curse of the Bambino"
........................Simmie Knox paints Pres. Bill Clinton's official presidential portrait; 1st African American artist to
...................................be awarded a presidential portrait commission
........................Elfriede Jelinek of Austria wins Nobel Prize in Literature; Franz Wright wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry


2005..............Iraq War: Iraq holds multi-party national elections
........................Condoleeza Rice appointed 1st African-American Secretary of State
........................US Senate issues formal apology for never having made lynching a federal crime
........................Edgar Ray Killen convicted of manslaughter in the deaths of 3 civil rights activists, James Chaney,
....................................Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner, who were working in MS in 1964 at the time of
....................................their murders
........................Hurricane Katrina devastates New Orleans and the Gulf Coast; over 970 people die; shipping disrupted; gas
....................................prices soar; more than half a million people are uprooted, causing the largest displacement of
....................................Americans since the Civil War
........................Reporters from the NY Times reveal that Pres. Bush authorized the NSA to wiretap domestic calls in
....................................apparent defiance of Congress and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
........................Pres. Bush nominates Harriet Miers to the Supreme Court; amid criticism, she withdraws 3 weeks later
........................Rosa Parks's body lies in honor at the Rotunda of the US Capital; 1st woman to be given this honor
........................Spain and South Africa legalize same-sex marriages
........................Terrorist attack in London: bombs explode on 3 crowded commuter trains and one double-decker bus,
...................................wounding 700 and killing 52; attributed to Al-Queda
........................Scientists in South Korea create the 1st cloned dog, an Afghan hound named Snuppy
........................Rice genome mapped: international team led by Japanese scientists determine the complete genetic sequence
...................................of the dietary staple, in hopes that this will lead to cheaper, more abundant crops to feed the poorest
...................................populations
.......................PA judge rules that Intelligent Design is a religious view, not a science, and cannot be taught in the Dover
...................................District public school science classes as an alternative to evolution
.......................The Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illigal Immigraton Control Act authroizes a 700 mile fence along
...................................the US-Mexico border, requires state and local authoritoes to turn over undocumented immigrants to
...................................federal agents, and makes assisting such individual in any way a felony
.......................YouTube, a popular web site where users can view free video clips, developed by Chad Hurle, Steven Chen,
...................................and Jawed Karim
.......................Ted Kooser awarded Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Harold Pinter wins Nobel Prize for Literature


2006...............Study finds that African Americans and ethnic Hawaiians are about 55 percent more likely than whites to
....................................develop lung cancer from light to moderate smoking, and Japanese Americans and Latinos are about
....................................50 percent less likely than whites
.......................Military Commissions Act suspends habeas corpus rights for so-called "enemy combatants" imprisoned since
................................... 9-11 at Guatanamo Naval Base
.......................Iraq War: Continued fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan kill 3,221 troops (880 in 2006); Nouri al-Maliki named
...................................Prime Minister of Iraq, forms unity government with Sunnis and Kurds; Saddam Hussein hanged in Baghdad
.......................Pres. Bush designates the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as the largest protected marine preserve in the world
.......................Nancy Pelosi becomes 1st woman to become US Speaker of the House of Representatives
......................5 Amish girls killed and 5 seriously wounded by gunman Charles Roberts at a PA schoolhouse
.......................Medicare prescription drug program goes into effect; chaotic program offers a choice of 1,429 plans across the US
.......................3 die and 200 are sickened from E. coli outbreak spread through spinach
.......................Bishop Katharine Jefferts Schori becomes 1st woman to lead the Episcopal Church in the US
.......................The International Astronomical Union downgrades Pluto, voting to recognize only 8 planets
.......................North Korea tests a nuclear bomb, against United Nations sanctions
.......................Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia, 1st woman elected head of an African nation
.......................WikiLeaks founded by Julian Assange to publish previously classified media from anonymous news sources.
.................................Among other stories the group breaks: extradjudicial killings in Kenya, toxic waste dumping in Cote
.................................d'Ivoire, US military procedures at Guantanamo Bay prison, US airstrikes in Iraq
.......................Twitter launched; makes social media accessible on mobile phones and transforms the news cycle with a new immediacy
.......................The return of Big Urbanism: urban design and redevelopment strategies on a grand scale in NYC (Atlantic Yards
...................................Project), Atlanta (Bellwood Quarry), Denver (Denver Art Museum), LA (Frank Gehry Grand Avenue project),
...................................and other cities
.......................US Air Forcce Memorial opens in Arlington, VA
.......................CBGB's, legendary punk rock club in NYC, closes
.......................Orhan Pamuk of Turkey awarded Nobel Prize in Literature; Claudia Emerson wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry

2007.............Deadliest mass shooting in US history: Seung Hui Cho, student at Virginia Tech University, kills 32, injures 30
.......................Iraq War continues, despite widespread lack of citizen support, with "troop surges" to control violence in Baghdad
...................... Drew Gilpin Faust, 1st woman appointed pres. of Harvard Univ.

.......................US FDA approves a birth control pill, Lybrel,that completely eliminates a woman's menstrual cycle
.......................Crisis in the subprime mortgage market leads to defaults affecting over 2 million homeowners; home sales fall steeply
...................................nationwide and prices plunge

.......................Prince William County, MD passes toughest laws against undocumented immigrants in the US; approx. 8,000
.................................Latinos leave the County

.......................Scientists transform human skin cells into ones that mimic embryonic stem cells, allowing for research, currently
...................................hobbled by laws that limit the use of stem cells, into the treatment of diseases
.......................Previously unknown species of monkey, the lesula, discovered in the eastern Congo basin

.......................China strengthens reinforcement of its one-child policy, with birth control bureaucrats collecting fines from families
...................................with more than one child. Local officials are accused of forcing women to submit to abortions and sterilization
...................................to meet their population quotas

.......................Pakistan imposes emergency rule, suspending its constitution, delaying elections, and shutting down all independent
...................................media in what it characterizes as a battle against "rising militancy" in the country

.......................Global warming continues to affect polar regions; for the first time in recorded history, the Northwest Passage is
................... ...............completely free of ice (by 2008, the Passage is consistently navigable during summers and early fall)

.......................Former VP Al Gore awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, as well as an Emmy and an Oscar Award for his efforts to stop
...................................global warming

.......................New York City, Philadelphia, and other cities ban trans fats in restaurants to protect consumer health
.......................Launch of the iPhone, a line of mobile phones with a touch screen and virtual keyboard, able to take photos, play
...........................music, send and receive email, browse the web, send texts, use GPS navigation, and a host of other functions,
...........................enabled by downloading program applications ("apps") for games, reference works, social networking, reading
...........................ebooks, etc. Begins the era of the "smart phone"
.......................Normandy American Cemetery Visitor Center dedicated in France
.......................Natasha Trethewey awarded Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Doris Lessing awarded Nobel Prize in Literature

2008.............Historic Democratic Presidential race between woman candidate, Hilary Rodham Clinton, and African American
...................................candidate, Barak Obama; Obama is nominated as the Democratic Presidential candidate

.......................Republican nominee for US President, John McCain, names a woman as VP running mate, Sarah Palin of AK
.......................Global economic crisis, worst since the Great Depression: US Treasury takes over mortgage giants Fannie Mae and
...................................Freddie Mac; Lehman Brothers investment bank files for bankruptcy; Federal Reserve extends an $85 billion
...................................loan to American International Group, the largest insurance company in the US; other banks seek
...................................governmental help for their most distressed mortgage assets

.......................Sub-prime mortgage crisis leads to massive foreclosure of homes throughout US
.......................As of this date, 43 African Americans serve in US Congress; this does not reflect the 13% total African American
...................................US population (of the 42 African Americans in the House, 14 more would be needed to reach 13%; of the
...................................1 Senator, 12 more would be needed to equal 13%), and 25 states (WA, OR, ID, NV, AZ, UT, MT, WY, CO,
...................................NM, ND, SD, NE, KS, IA, AR, KY, WV, VT, NH, ME, RI, DE, AK, and HI) have never elected an African
...................................American to Congress

.......................The World Bank announces 33 countries are confronting food crises, as the prices of staples soar; the cost of
................................... rice, for example, goes up 141% on the international market. Pakistan introduces ration cards, Egypt begins
................................... distributing bread through its Army reserves, and hunger riots in Haiti result in the ouster of the Prime
....................................Minister. The World Bank estimates that the crisis could push another hundred million people deeper into
....................................poverty
.....................CA is 1st state to ban trans fats in restaurants and bakeries
.....................CA Supreme Court rules that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marriage but a subsequent state ballot
....................................vote changes the California constitution to restrict the definition of marriage to a union between a man and
....................................a woman. The campaigns for anf against this proposition are the highest funded in US history
.....................Supreme Court overrules DC's F
irearms Control Regulations Act in District of Columbia v. Heller, eliminating states' rights
....................................to regulate individual gun ownership
.....................Pentagon Memorial opens in Arlington, VA, designed by Julie Beckman and Keith Kaseman, it commemorates the 184 people
....................................killed in the Pantagon in the 9-11 Attacks
.....................China hosts Olympics; US swimmer Michael Phelps wins record-breaking 8 gold medals
.....................US space probe Phoenix finds evidence of water on the surface of Mars; India lands its first unmanned lunar space
....................................probe on the moon; China conducts its first space walk
.....................Terrorists from the Pakistani militant group Lash-kar-e-Taiba kill over 160 people in Mumbai in a three-day rampage
.....................Robert Hass and Philip Schultz are co-winners of the Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio wins Nobel Prize
....................................in Literature

2009.............1st African American president, Barak Obama, inaugurated 44th US President
.......................Largest ever inauguration crowd: 1.8 million people attend events on the National Mall in DC
.......................Eric H. Holder Jr. appointed 1st African American US Attorney General
.......................Sonia Sotomayor appointed 1st Latina US Supreme Court justice
.......................Iraq War: Iraqi military takes control of operations
.......................Bernard Madoff convicted of biggest Ponzi scheme in US history; sentenced to 150 years in prison
.......................Epidemic of N1H1, or swine flu, leads to approx. 10,000 deaths in Mexico, US, and other countries
.......................Mass shooting at Fort Hood, TX: Maj. Nidal Hasan kills 13, wounds 24
.......................Global warming allows for new trade route through the Northeast Passage: two German vessels become 1st commercial
....................................ships to travel from East Asia to Western Europe through Arctic waters
.......................Fossilized skeleton of oldest human ancestor found, 4.4 million year old Ardipithecus ramidus
.......................World Digital Library, operated by UNESCO with the Library of Congress, formed to expand non-English, non-
...................................Western content on the internet, and to contribute to scholarly research
.......................Typhoons in Taiwan and the Philippines, and a tsunami in Samoa and American Samoa, cause massive death and
...................................destruction in August and September
.......................United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Denmark
.......................Development of Twitter, an instant mini-blogging service of 140 words or less
.......................1st White House Passover seder hosted by Pres. Obama
.......................W.S. Merwin awarded Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Herta Muller wins Nobel in Literature

2010.............Iraq War: Last US combat brigades are pulled out of Iraq, leaving a training force of approx. 50,000. The war, one of
...................................the longest in US history, killed 4,400 and wounded approx. 32,000 US troops.
.......................Elena Kagan appointed US Supreme Court justice; 1st time 3 women are serving simultaneously
.......................US House of Representatives passes Health Care overhaul bill
.......................After two decades of debate, Congress enacts the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act,
...................................which expands the 1969 hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender,
...................................sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.
.......................BP oil rig Deepwater Horizon explodes off Louisiana gulf coast, killing 11 workers and spewing oil in the Gulf of Mexico
...................................for 3 months, causing extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats, as well as hurting the fishing and tourist
...................................industries. In 2015, BP agrees to pay the US Dept. of Justice an $18.7 billion settlement, the largest paid by a single
...................................company in US history
.......................Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear attracts thousands to the National Mall in DC to hear political satirists Jon Stewart and
...................................Stephen Colbert
.......................Catholic Church rocked by multiple revelations of molestation and rape by priests
.......................An ash cloud from an erupting volcano, Eyiafiallojokull, in Iceland, shuts down European air travel and forces hundreds
...................................of people to flee rising floodwaters; global trade is affected
.......................Linguists discover a previously unknown language, Koro, in NE India. It has no written form and is spoken by only
...................................approximately 800 people, who are rapidly aging
...................... New bridge opens a quarter-mile downstream from the Hoover Dam, largest concrete-arch bridge in Western Hemisphere
......................Oldest person to date to climb Mt. Everest: Takao Arayama of Japan, age 74.
.......................Washington, DC legalizes gay marriage
.......................Electronic books get a huge boost with the improved third version of the Kindle, a portable reader first developed by
...................................Amazon in 2007
.......................Mario Vargas Llosa wins Nobel Prize in Literature; Rae Armantrout wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry

2011..............Earthquake measuring 9.0 and resulting tsunami in Japan are largest in recorded history; 15,800 people are estimated to
...................................have died; towns all along the northern coast have disappeared, wiped clean by the force of the water; the
...................................cooling systems at 6 nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant fail; radiation contaminates water
...................................and food supplies
.......................Tornado outbreak of 139 separate twisters kills 300 in six southern US states, centered in AL
......................."Occupy Wall Street" protests in NYC spread to other cities across US in response to economic injustice
......................."Arab Spring": Popular uprisings erupt throughout the Arab world, in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, and Syria, leading
.................................to resignations by Presidents, civil unrest, and general elections
......................European Union split over financial instability in member countries Portugal and Greece
......................US Navy SEALS kill Osama bin Laden, mastermind of the 9-11 attacks, in a compound in Pakistan
......................Iraq War: US troops withdraw, ending the war of almost 9 years that resulted in almost 4,500 American deaths
......................US Space Shuttle program ends with the successful landing of Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center; 1st solar-powered
.................................spacecraft, Juno, launched on mission to Jupiter
......................Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial opens in Washington, DC
......................National September 11 Memorial opens
in New York, NY
......................Tomas Transtromer wins Nobel Prize in Literature; Kay Ryan wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry

2012............Encylopedia Brittanica discontinues its print edition after 244 years of publication; converts to digital format only
......................2012 Olympics held in London: 1st time boxing is open to women; all sports are now open to women competitors.  James
...................................Pistorius of South Africa is 1st double amputee to compete in track and field
......................Hurricane Sandy combines with a nor'easter to create a "superstorm" that devastates much of the east coast; over 90 die,
...................................Wall Street closes for 2 days, United Nations closes for 3, NY subway system floods, air traffic stalls, 7.5 million
...................................people without electricity
......................President Barak Obama declares support for gay marriage
......................US Census finds white births are no longer the majority for 1st time
......................US Supreme Court upholds individual mandate in universal health care law (nicknamed "Obamacare") to be enacted in 2014
......................Mass shooting in movie theater in Aurora, CO: James Holmes kills 24
......................Mass shooting at elementary school in Newtown, CT: Adam Lanza kills 28
......................Financial crisis in European Union: Greece, Ireland, and Portugal particularly hard hit
......................World's largest blackout in Bangalore deprives 700 million people of electricity; affects light, fans and other cooling systems,
...................................and trains
......................VatiLeaks scandal: Paolo Gabriele, a personal attendant of the Pope, anonymously releases reams of personal documents from
...................................the Pope and other high officials at the Vatican to the Italian press, revealing financial corruption and vicious infighting
......................St. Paul's Cathedral in London celebrates the 350th anniversary of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer
......................Folger Shakespeare Library releases Shakespeare's full canon in e-book format
......................Scribner's releases new version of Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms with all 47 of the author's alternate endings
......................Random House and Penguin merge, creating the largest consumer book publishing house in the world
......................Mo Yan wins Nobel Prize in Literature; Tracy K. Smith wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; no award given for the Pulitzer in Fiction;
...................................David Ferry wins National Book Award in Poetry, and Louise Erdrich wins in Fiction.

2013............Barack Obama begins second term as 44th US President
.....................Two explosive devices are set off at the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing 3 and injuring 264; two brothers, Americans
...................................of Chechen descent, are responsible. The older brother is accidently killed by the younger in escaping; the younger,
...................................Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, is brought to trial in 2015 and sentenced to death
.....................Edward Snowden, a former contractor for the National Security Agency, leaks hundreds of pages of classified documents, creating
...................................intense debate among lawmakers and the general public about the tradeoffs between national security and individual liberty
.....................Fertilizer plant in West, TX explodes, kills 12 and injures approx. 200; 50 homes destroyed
.....................US Supreme Court strikes down the Defense of Marriage Act, ruling that it violates the rights of gays and lesbians
.....................Black Lives Matter movement begun by Alixia Garza, Patrisse Cullors and Opal Tometi to protest police and institutional violence
...................................against people of African descent
.....................Meteor passes directly over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, damaging buildings, injuring 1,491
.....................Benedict XVI becomes first Pope to voluntarily resign since 1294; Jorge Mario Bergoglio named successor, takes the name Francis. 
...................................1st pope from the Americas; 1st Jesuit pope.
.....................Aaron Alexis, a former Navy reservist, guns down 12 people at the Washington Navy Yard, before being shot and killed by police
.....................Washington Post sells to Jeffrey B. Bezos, founder of Amazon.com; part of a wave of "legacy" print media sales to private individuals
...................................(including the sales of the Boston Globe, Philadelphia Inquirer, and Newsweek)
.....................Archeologist Pierre Tallet discovers oldest known papyri in Egypt, written in hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, approx. 4,600 years old
.....................Scientists from Canada and Germany create BigBrain, a detailed three-dimensional brain atlas
.....................Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh create Project Tycho, a 125-year digitial database of 56 infectious diseases, searchable by
...................................disease, medical intervention (including drug treatments and vaccines), geography, demographics, even weather and climate
.....................The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences elects its first African American president, Cheryl Boone
.....................Alice Munro wins Nobel Prize in Literature; Sharon Olds wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Mary Szybist wins National Book Award in
...................................Poetry; James McBride wins in Fiction

2014...........Janet L. Yellen appointed 1st woman to chair the US Federal Reserve
....................US Dept. of Justice issues policy to give same-sex marriages sweeping equal protection under the law in every program it administers
....................Major mudslide in Washington State kills approximately 40
....................Black Lives Matter movement becomes national after police officer Darren Wilson shoots and kills an unarmed 18-year old, Michael
...................................Brown, in Ferguson, MS. DeRay Mckesson and Johnetta Elzie use Twitter to give live updates of demonstrations and are
...................................awarded the Howard Zinn Freedom to Write Award (in 2015); another leader of protests, Brittany Packnett, is appointed to the
...................................President's Commission on Twenty-first Century Policing. More than 30 Black Lives Matter chapters are established acorss the
...................................U.S., and one in Toronto.
....................Olympic Winter Games held in Sochi, Russia.  1st time Women's Ski Jumping is included
....................Major increase in immigration of undocumented people across the Mexican border into the US, particularly of unaccompanied children
...................................from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador; up to 10,000 children a month estimated
....................US announces plans to re-establish diplomatic relations with Cuba, for the 1st time in 5 decades
....................Deadly outbreak of ebola virus in West Africa kills thousands
....................Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project uses magnetometry to map four square miles around the site, revealing buried evidence of 15
...................................previously unknown Neolithic monuments in the complex
....................Belgium becomes 1st country to legalize euthanasia for terminally ill patients
....................Giant trench discovered under Antarctic ice, larger than the Grand Canyon
....................The genetic mutation that causes autism discovered
....................Rosetta Mission: international team of scientists, led by the European Space Agency, land a satellite on a comet
....................Vijay Seshadri wins Pulitzer Prize in poetry; Louise Gluck wins National Book Award in Poetry; Patrick Modiano of France wins the Nobel
...................................Prize in Literature

2015..........US Supreme Court rules that same-sex couples can marry nationwide; hailed as a civil rights victory
....................US re-establishes full diplomatic ties with Cuba, re-opens embassy in Havana after 54 years
....................Clean Power Plan: EPA releases 1st standards on carbon pollution from power plants
....................9 killed during a prayer service at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, SC. The gunman is a 21-year old white
...................................supremacist, Dylann Roof. Among those killed is pastor and SC State Senator Clementa C. Pinkney
....................14 killed in a mass shooting in San Bernardino, CA; police investigate the gunmen's ties to Islamic terrorism
....................Pope Francis visits the US, becomes 1st pope to address a joint session of the US Congress, and 1st to canonize a saint in US
....................Under US Sentencing Commission's new rules, nearly 6,000 nonviolent drug offenders with reduced sentences released from prison
....................Amtrak train derails in Philadelphia, killing 8 and injuring over 200
....................Longest flight by a solar-powered aircraft: Swiss experimental plane Solar Impulse travels 118 hours non-stop from Japan to Hawaii
....................NASA New Horizons spacecraft explores Pluto, gathering data on geology, topography, surface, temperature
....................Rachel Dolezal resigns as president of the Spokane, WA chapter of NAACP, after it is revealed that she lied about her race. Although
...................................white, she claimed to be African American
....................Caitlyn Jenner, former Olympian (under the name Bruce Jenner), becomes 1st transgender person to appear on the cover of Vanity Fair
....................Juan Felipe Herrera appointed 21st US Poet Laureate; 1st Latino to be honored
....................Svetlana Alexievich of Belorussia wins Nobel Prize in Literature; Gregory Pardlo wins Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; Robin Coste Lewis wins
...........................National Book Award in Poetry

2016..........45th US President elected
....................Gravitational waves from colliding black holes reported by 2 US observatories, proving Einstein's General Theory of Relativity
....................Armed militia group takes over Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in OR; FBI kills 1 and arrests 5
....................State of emergency declared in Flint, MI in response to poisoning of city's tap water